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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Textbook notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 11
INTELLIGENCE AND THINKING
-Intelligence is the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember
information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to
their own behavior in an adaptive way.
-psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural
judgments.
-The study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches:
1) Differential approach favours the development of tests that identify and measure
individual differences in peoples abilities to solve problems, particularly those that use
skills important in the classroom.
2) developmental approach studies the ways in which children learn to perceive,
manipulate, and think about the world. Jean Piaget, is the most influential proponent of
this approach.
3) information processing approach focuses on the types of skills people use to think
and to solve various types of problems. Robert Sternbergs influential theory of
successful intelligence, focuses on peoples ability to analyze and manage personal
strengths and weaknesses
Theories of Intelligence
-the differential approach assumes that we can best investigate the nature of
intelligence by studying the ways in which people differ on tests of such intellectual
abilities.
-Psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number, usually called
an IQ score, but the fact that these tests provide a single score does not itself mean that
intelligence is a single, general characteristic.
-AQ is athletic quotient. AQ measures are not useful in terms of predicting which sports
they are good at.
-there are three theories of intelligence: a two-factor theory, an information processing
theory, and a neuropsychological theory.
www.notesolution.com
Spearmans Two-Factor Theory
-Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on a test of
intellectual ability is determined by two factors: the g factor, which is general factor, and
the s factor, which is a factor specific to a particular test.
-g factor: According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all
intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and
eduction of correlates.
-s factor: According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular
task
-Apprehension of experience refers to peoples ability to perceive and understand what
they experience.
-Eduction of relations refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a
similar case.
-Correlations among various tests of particular intellectual abilities have provided
empirical evidence for Spearmans two-factor theory.
-The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70
-Spearman concluded that g factor accounted for the moderate correlations among
different tests of ability.
-In conclusion, a persons score on a particular test depends on two things: the persons
specific ability (s factor) on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her
level of the g factor, or the general reasoning ability.
Evidence from Factor Analysis
-With Karl Pearson, Spearman developed a statistical procedure known as factor
analysis.
-Factor analysis: A statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of
test.
-In the case of intelligence tests, these common factors would be particular abilities that
affect peoples performance on more than one test.
-Suppose that a group of people takes several different tests of intellectual ability. If
each persons scores on several of these tests correlate well with one another, we would
www.notesolution.com
conclude that the tests or subtests (at least partly) measure the same factor. A factor
analysis determines which sets of tests form groups.
-Factor analysis provides clues about the nature of intelligence, but it cannot provide a
theory of intelligence. The names given to the factors are up to the investigator and
therefore include a degree of subjective judgment.
-Factor analysis can never be more meaningful than the individual tests on which it is
performed. To identify the relevant factors in human intelligence, one must include an
extensive variety of tests in the factor analysis, and be assured there are many.
-Many factor analyses have been performed on tests of intellectual abilities, such as
Thurstones seven factors, Cattels fluid intelligence(gf) and crystallized intelligence(gc)
-Word analogies and vocabulary, general information, and use of language tests load
heavily on the crystallized intelligence factor.
-According to Cattel, gc depends on gf. Fluid intelligence supplies the native
ability(potential ability to learn and solve problems), whereas experience with language
and exposure to books, school, and other learning opportunities develop crystallized
intelligence.
An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence
-According to Robert Sternberg, the degree of success that people achieve in life is
strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze and manage their
unique combinations of strengths and weaknesses.
-Sternberg has devised a triarchic theory of intelligence that derives from the information
processing approach used by many cognitive psychologists. The three parts of the
theory deal with three aspects of intelligence: analytic intelligence, creative intelligence,
and practical intelligence.
-These three aspects contribute to successful intelligence, which is the ability to (a)
analyze ones strengths and weaknesses,(b) use the strengths to greatest advantage,
and (c) minimize the impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them.
-Analytic intelligence, consists of the mental mechanisms people use to plan and
execute tasks
-The following three components of analytic intelligence serve three functions:
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Description
Chapter 11 INTELLIGENCE AND THINKING -Intelligence is the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behavior in an adaptive way. -psychologists have pointed out that any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgments. -The study of intelligence is dominated by three main approaches: 1) Differential approach favours the development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples abilities to solve problems, particularly those that use skills important in the classroom. 2) developmental approach studies the ways in which children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world. Jean Piaget, is the most influential proponent of this approach. 3) information processing approach focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve various types of problems. Robert Sternbergs influential theory of successful intelligence, focuses on peoples ability to analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses Theories of Intelligence -the differential approach assumes that we can best investigate the nature of intelligence by studying the ways in which people differ on tests of such intellectual abilities. -Psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number, usually called an IQ score, but the fact that these tests provide a single score does not itself mean that intelligence is a single, general characteristic. -AQ is athletic quotient. AQ measures are not useful in terms of predicting which sports they are good at. -there are three theories of intelligence: a two-factor theory, an information processing theory, and a neuropsychological theory. www.notesolution.comSpearmans Two-Factor Theory -Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by two factors: the g factor, which is general factor, and the s factor, which is a factor specific to a particular test. -g factor: According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, education of relations, and eduction of correlates. -s factor: According to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task -Apprehension of experience refers to peoples ability to perceive and understand what they experience. -Eduction of relations refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case. -Correlations among various tests of particular intellectual abilities have provided empirical evidence for Spearmans two-factor theory. -The correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70 -Spearman concluded that g factor accounted for the moderate correlations among different tests of ability. -In conclusion, a persons score on a particular test depends on two things: the persons specific ability (s factor) on the particular test (such as spatial reasoning) and his or her level of the g factor, or the general reasoning ability. Evidence from Factor Analysis -With Karl Pearson, Spearman developed a statistical procedure known as factor analysis. -Factor analysis: A statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of test. -In the case of intelligence tests, these common factors would be particular abilities that affect peoples performance on more than one test. -Suppose that a group of people takes several different tests of intellectual ability. If each persons scores on several of these tests correlate well with one another, we would www.notesolution.com
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