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Chapter 13

Chapter13 textbook notes

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Chapter 13 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION - Inconsistent behavior is aspect of motivation - Motivation refers to a driving force that moves us to a particular action - Motivation is a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature of an individuals behavior, the strength of the behavior and the persistence of the behavior. What Is Motivation? - When we speak casually of motivation, we tend to describe it in terms of goals - We behave in a particular way to get something (or to avoid something, in the case of a possible criminal hitchhiker) - In that case, motivation is proactive, or forward-looking - However, in the case of the tennis player with the headache, motivation is also reactive, or in response to conditions present at the time - The proactive sense of motivation is very similar to concepts of reinforcement - We are motivated to perform a behavior to gain (or avoid losing) a reinforcer or to avoid (or escape from) an aversive event. Biological Needs - Biological needs can be very potent motivators - To survive, we all need air, food, water, various vitamins and minerals, and protection from extremes in temperature. - Regulatory behavior A behavior that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis - ex) eating, drinking, hunting, shivering, building a fire, and putting on a warm coat - Homeostasis the process by which important physiological characteristics (such as body temperature and blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level - Deficits or imbalances motivate us because they cause us to perform the appropriate regulatory behaviors - A regulatory system has 4 essential features: 1 System variable the characteristic to be regulated 2 Set point the optimum value of the system variable 3 Detector a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviate from its set point 4 Correctional mechanism restores the system variable tot eh set point - Ex) A room whose temperature is regulated by a thermostatically controlled heater. - The system variable is the air temperature of the room, and the detector for this variable is a thermostat. www.notesolution.com - The thermostat can be adjusted so that contacts of a switch will close when the temperature falls below a preset value (the set point) - Closing of the contact turns on the correctional mechanism: the coils of the heater - If the room cools below the set point, the thermostat turns the heater on, which warms the room. - The rise in room temperature causes the thermostat to turn the heater off - Negative feedback a process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action. - Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops - Drive reduction hypothesis The hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological need or deprivation) produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviors. - Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing - The physiological changes associated with, say, going without food for several hours, produce an unpleasant state called hunger - Hunger serves as a drive - Drive A condition, often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes an organisms behavior. - The act of eating reduces hunger, and this drive reduction is reinforcing - NOT all drives are based on homeostasis (like the ones for food and water) - The most obvious example is the drive associated with sexual behavior - An individual can survive without sexual behavior, but the sex drive is certainly motivating, and sexual contact is certainly reinforcing - The drive reduction hypothesis of reinforcement has fallen into disfavor for two reasons - There is no way to measure drive in either of these examples and confirm that it actually exists; thus, the hypothesis cannot be experimentally tested - If we examine our own behavior, we find that many events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting, or drive increasing - In general, the experiences we really want to repeat (that is, the ones we find reinforcing) are those that increase, rather than decrease, our level of arousal Physiology of Reinforcement - To understand the nature of reinforcement, we must understand something about its physiological basis - Researchers have discovered that an essential component of the reinforcement system consists of neurons that release dopamine as their transmitter substance - Thus, all reinforcing stimuli appear to trigger the release of dopamine in the brain Optimum-Level Theory - Although events that increase our level of arousal are often reinforcing, there are times when a person wants nothing more than some peace and quiet. - In the case, avoidance of exciting stimuli motivates us. www.notesolution.com
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