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Chapter 16

Chapter 16: Life style, Stress and Health

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Sanchika Kanagalingam
April 20th 2011
Psychology II
Chapter 16
Life Style, Stress and Health
Cultural Evolution: Life Style Choices and Consequences
A cultures adaptive change to recurrent environmental pressure
Driven mainly by psychological forces
Psychological developments that help us deal with environmental pressures
Example. First generation will harvest their crops
Second generation will use machinery to harvest crops
Third generation will use robots to harvest their crops
Life style
The aggregated behavior of a person, or a person leads his or her life
For our pre historic ancestors, life styles would be the same
As culture revolution increases the options to how to do daily activities increased
Culture evolution gives us options
Resulted in a much higher standard of living
Culture revolution also can produce threats
Eg. Automobile crashes
In contrast a healthy life style can be viewed as one that insures an individuals physical and psychological
well-being
A healthy life style includes a nutritious diets, regular exercise, no use of tobacco, moderate use of
alcohol, practice of safe sex
Although the consequences of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors have obvious negative biological implications,
the behaviors themselves can be acquired and maintained by both biological and psychological factors
www.notesolution.com
Sanchika Kanagalingam
April 20th 2011
Psychology II
The Law of Effect
Behaviors that produce favorable consequences tend to be repeated, and those that produce unfavorable
consequences tend not to be repeated
Many unhealthy behaviors have reinforcing consequences in the short run and damaging consequences in
the long run
Eg. Teens that smoke get immediate rewards and later in life suffer
Stress and Health
Stress in a pattern of physiological, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive responses to real or imagined
stimuli that are perceived as blocking a goal or threatening our wellbeing
Stimuli are stressors
Stressors can be positive or negative
Positive stressors are like being stressed for a game of sports
Can increase you athletic behavior
When stress is extended over long time, it can have a negative effect on both a persons psychological
health and a persons physical health
The Biological Basis of Stress
Our physical response to stressors is governed by the autonomic nervous system
, which is controlled by the hypothalamus
Stress is a biological response that is experienced as an emotion
The hypothalamus sends signals to the autonomic nervous system and to the pituitary gland, both of
which respond by increased heart rate, blood pressure and breathing
These physiological responses produce heightening psychological and physical state of alertness and
readiness for action.
Two ways in which stress can be maladaptive (not good)
www.notesolution.com
Sanchika Kanagalingam
April 20th 2011
Psychology II
Stress can produce anxiety which may impair ones ability to perform a task
E.g. anxiety before doing a speech
The effects of prolonged and severe stress
Such life styles can lead to increased risk of illness
Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome
The model proposed by Seyle to describe the bodys adaption to chronic exposure to severe stressors.
He found that chronic exposure to severe stressors produces a sequence of three physiological stages
Alarm reaction
Arousal of the autonomic nervous system
Organisms resistance to the stressor temporarily drops to below normal, and will experience shock
Stage of resistance
Continued exposure to the stressor
Resistance level goes above the normal level
Adaption to the environmental stressor
Stage of exhaustion
More continued exposure to the stressor
Organism loses ability to adapt
Reaction levels go below the normal and organism is susceptible to illness and even death
Our emotional responses are designed to primarily to cope with short-term events.
Flight or fight response- physiological reaction that helps us to fight or flee a dangerous situation
When threating situations are continuous they produce a more or less stress response
This continued state can lead to cardiac health conditions and physical problems
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Sanchika Kanagalingam April 20 2011 Psychology II Chapter 16 Life Style, Stress and Health Cultural Evolution: Life Style Choices and Consequences A cultures adaptive change to recurrent environmental pressure Driven mainly by psychological forces Psychological developments that help us deal with environmental pressures Example. First generation will harvest their crops Second generation will use machinery to harvest crops Third generation will use robots to harvest their crops Life style The aggregated behavior of a person, or a person leads his or her life For our pre historic ancestors, life styles would be the same As culture revolution increases the options to how to do daily activities increased Culture evolution gives us options Resulted in a much higher standard of living Culture revolution also can produce threats Eg. Automobile crashes In contrast a healthy life style can be viewed as one that insures an individuals physical and psychological well-being A healthy life style includes a nutritious diets, regular exercise, no use of tobacco, moderate use of alcohol, practice of safe sex Although the consequences of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors have obvious negative biological implications, the behaviors themselves can be acquired and maintained by both biological and psychological factors www.notesolution.comSanchika Kanagalingam th April 20 2011 Psychology II The Law of Effect Behaviors that produce favorable consequences tend to be repeated, and those that produce unfavorable consequences tend not to be repeated Many unhealthy behaviors have reinforcing consequences in the short run and damaging consequences in the long run Eg. Teens that smoke get immediate rewards and later in life suffer Stress and Health Stress in a pattern of physiological, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive responses to real or imagined stimuli that are perceived as blocking a goal or threatening our wellbeing Stimuli are stressors Stressors can be positive or negative Positive stressors are like being stressed for a game of sports Can increase you athletic behavior When stress is extended over long time, it can have a negative effect on both a persons psychological health and a persons physical health The Biological Basis of Stress Our physical response to stressors is governed by the autonomic nervous system , which is controlled by the hypothalamus Stress is a biological response that is experienced as an emotion The hypothalamus sends signals to the autonomic nervous system and to the pituitary gland, both of which respond by increased heart rate, blood pressure and breathing These physiological responses produce heightening psychological and physical state of alertness and readiness for action. Two ways in which stress can be maladaptive (not good) www.notesolution.com
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