Textbook Notes (378,302)
CA (167,125)
UTSC (19,207)
Psychology (9,979)
PSYA02H3 (978)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 notes

21 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 17: The Natures and Causes of Mental Disorders
CLASSIFICATION OF DIAGNOSIS OF MENTAL DISORDERS
Emil Kraepelin: created the first comprehensive classification system of
psychological disorders
What is Abnormal?
abnormal refers to any departure of the norm
most important feature of a mental disorder is not whether a persons behavior is
abnormal, but whether it is maladaptive
Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders
mental disorders are caused by the interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and
environmental factors
The Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud: mental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the three
components of the mindthe id, ego, and superego
for some, the conflicts become so severe that the minds defense mechanisms
cannot produce a resolution that is enough for mental health
the resultant is the defense mechanisms distort reality
psychodynamic therapists attempt to make their clients aware of their
intrapsychic conflict and defense mechanism failures to regain mental health
The Medical Perspective
Hippocrates: believed that excesses of the four humors (black bile, yellow bile,
blood, and phlegm) led to emotional problems
today many people with mental disorders are no longer treated in mental
hospitals, instead they are treated on an outpatient basis with drugs
www.notesolution.com
the medical model suggests that mental disorders are caused by specific
abnormalities of the brain and nervous system and should be approached for
treatment in the same manner as physical illnesses
The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective
mental disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can be
understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of
those factors
example, a persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief from
tension
what also counts is a persons ongoing subject interpretation of the events taking
place in his/her environment
The Humanistic Perspective
mental disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive
regard of others becoming overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of
others
they begin to feel no control over the outcomes of the important events in life
resulting in depression
humanistic therapy help people realize that they do have intrinsic value
The Sociocultural Perspective
cultures play a significant role in the development of mental disorders
mental disorders exist that appear to occur only in certain cultures—a
phenomenon called culture-bound syndromes
The Diathesis-Stress Model of Mental Disorders
a casual account of mental disorders based on the idea that mental disorders
develop when a person possess a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors
that exceed his or her abilities to cope with them
the combination of a persons genetics and early learning experiences yield a
predisposition for a mental disorder
www.notesolution.com
The DSM-IV Classification System
the most commonly classification of mental disorders used in North America is
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV)
provides descriptions of an individuals psychological condition using five
different criteria, called axes
individuals undergoing evaluation are assessed on each of the axes
Axis I Axis II Axis III Axis IVAxis V
Basic classification Provide information about an individuals
life
-major
psychological
disorders that
require clinical
attention
-disorder may
characterize
an individual
at any one
period of time
-personality
disorders
-disorder
may
characterize
an
individual at
any one
period of
time
-physical
disorders
such as skin
rashes
accompanyin
g the mental
disorder
-specifies the
severity of
stress
(within the
last year)
and sources
details the
source of
stress and its
severity and
approximate
duration
-estimate the extent
to which a persons
quality of life has
been diminished
due to the disorder
-ratings are made on
a 100-point Global
Assessment of
Functioning (GAF)
scale
GAF=100 represents the absence or near absence of impaired functioning
GAF=represents serious problems in functioning
GAF=10 represents impairment that may result in injury
DSM-IV-TR classification scheme for Axes I and II
Axis Imajor clinical syndromes
Disorders usually appearing in infancy, childhood, or adolescence
Any deviation from normal development, including mental retardation,
autism, speech problems, aggressive behaviour, etc.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 17: The Natures and Causes of Mental Disorders CLASSIFICATION OF DIAGNOSIS OF MENTAL DISORDERS Emil Kraepelin: created the first comprehensive classification system of psychological disorders What is Abnormal? abnormal refers to any departure of the norm most important feature of a mental disorder is not whether a persons behavior is abnormal, but whether it is maladaptive Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders mental disorders are caused by the interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors The Psychodynamic Perspective Freud: mental disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the three components of the mindthe id, ego, and superego for some, the conflicts become so severe that the minds defense mechanisms cannot produce a resolution that is enough for mental health the resultant is the defense mechanisms distort reality psychodynamic therapists attempt to make their clients aware of their intrapsychic conflict and defense mechanism failures to regain mental health The Medical Perspective Hippocrates: believed that excesses of the four humors (black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm) led to emotional problems today many people with mental disorders are no longer treated in mental hospitals, instead they are treated on an outpatient basis with drugs www.notesolution.com the medical model suggests that mental disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system and should be approached for treatment in the same manner as physical illnesses The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective mental disorders are learned maladaptive behavior patterns that can be understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors example, a persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief from tension what also counts is a persons ongoing subject interpretation of the events taking place in hisher environment The Humanistic Perspective mental disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others becoming overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others they begin to feel no control over the outcomes of the important events in life resulting in depression humanistic therapy help people realize that they do have intrinsic value The Sociocultural Perspective cultures play a significant role in the development of mental disorders mental disorders exist that appear to occur only in certain culturesa phenomenon called culture-bound syndromes The Diathesis-Stress Model of Mental Disorders a casual account of mental disorders based on the idea that mental disorders develop when a person possess a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to cope with them the combination of a persons genetics and early learning experiences yield a predisposition for a mental disorder www.notesolution.com
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