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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 notes

21 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 15 Social Psychology
Social Cognition
Our behaviour affects the way others act and in turn their behaviour affects our
actions
The field of psychology that studies our social nature is called social psychology-
the branch of psychology that studies our social nature: how the actual, or
implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings, and
behaviours.
Understanding social behaviour requires considerable attention to a persons
environment both physical and social
Social psychologist are successfully applying our knowledge to these basic
psychological processes to the understanding of social cognition- how people
attend to, perceive, interpret and respond to the social world.
Psychologists study impression formation the way in which we integrate
information about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person
is.
Schema(schemata for plural)-a mental frame work or body of knowledge
that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place or thing
Schemata aid us in interpreting the world
Research has demonstrated that understanding is greater when people know the
title of the passage before it is read
Central traits-organize and influence our understanding of other traits a
person possesses to a greater extent than do other traits
Central traits impart meaning to other known traits and suggest the presence of yet
other traits that have yet to be revealed
Traits such as polite and blunt thus are known as peripheral traits
The negative influence of the cold trait is stronger than the positive influence of
the warm” trait
www.notesolution.com
The tendency to form an impression of a person based on the initial
information we learn about a person is called the primacy effect.
The primacy effect reflects greater attention to trait information presented early
than to that presented late
Webster,Richter and Kruglanski found that the primacy effect was more pronounced
for participants who were mentally fatigued than for those who were relatively alert
We observe what a person does and says we purposefully think about what those
behaviours reveal about his/her personal qualities
Brown & Bassili(2002) suggested that people may generate trait like labels from
observing a persons behaviour
Labels than become automatically associated in memory with whatever stimulus
happens to have been around at the same time
Brown& Bassili(2002) showed that trait labels from behavioural descriptions may
become associated with almost any stimulus including inanimate ones
Self-concept-your knowledge, feelings and ideas about yourself
Self- is a persons distinct individuality
Self-schema- a mental framework that represents and synthesizes
information about oneself ; a cognitive structure that organises the
knowledge, feelings and ideas that constitute the self-concept
Self-schema then is a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge feelings and
ideas that constitute the self-concept
Self-concept is dynamic; it changes with experience
Thinking of ourselves only in terms of who we are at present does not accurately
reflect how we will think of ourselves in the future or the kind of person we might
become
Cross-cultural psychologists- are interested in the effects of cultures on behaviour
Term culture traditionally referred to a group of people who live together in a
common environment who share customs and religious beliefs and practices and who
often resemble each other genetically
www.notesolution.com
Definitions of culture now widely vary
Within a broadly defined culture we can identify subcultures based of ethnicity, age ,
political beliefs, and other characteristics by which people define themselves
Many cultures can exist within a single geographic zone.
Cross-cultural research provides an opportunity for psychologists to test the
generality of the results of a study performed with members of a particular culture
If similar studies performed with members of a different cultures produce similar
results, we can say that we have discovered a general principle that applies broadly
to members of our species
oIf results are different in each cultures, means the need for further research
Cultures differ with respect to 2 major classes of variables: biological and ecological
Biological variables include such factors as diet, genetics and endemic diseases
Ecological systems populations density, religion, cultural myths and education
Behavioural differences in biological and ecological variables
I cross-cultural research, culture is considered to be a treatment variable-something
like an independent variable.
Cross-cultural comparisons are subject to the sam limitations that affect other
correlational studies
Fiske, Kitayama, Markus and Nisbett(1998) propose that cultural psychology strives
to better understand the psychological principles that inform cultural practice and
how they affect various psychological processes
Many cultural psychologists believe that basic psychological processes may be
universal but that these processes are informed by culture
Sociocultural psychologists have investigated the interplay of culture and social
behaviours, personality differences, problem solving, intellectual abilities, perceptual
abilities, and aesthetics
To construe something is to interpret it or to explain its meaning
The independent construal emphasizes that uniqueness of the self, its autonomy
from others and self-reliance
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 15 Social Psychology Social Cognition Our behaviour affects the way others act and in turn their behaviour affects our actions The field of psychology that studies our social nature is called social psychology- the branch of psychology that studies our social nature: how the actual, or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Understanding social behaviour requires considerable attention to a persons environment both physical and social Social psychologist are successfully applying our knowledge to these basic psychological processes to the understanding of social cognition- how people attend to, perceive, interpret and respond to the social world. Psychologists study impression formation the way in which we integrate information about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person is. Schema(schemata for plural)-a mental frame work or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place or thing Schemata aid us in interpreting the world Research has demonstrated that understanding is greater when people know the title of the passage before it is read Central traits-organize and influence our understanding of other traits a person possesses to a greater extent than do other traits Central traits impart meaning to other known traits and suggest the presence of yet other traits that have yet to be revealed Traits such as polite and blunt thus are known as peripheral traits The negative influence of the cold trait is stronger than the positive influence of the warm trait www.notesolution.com The tendency to form an impression of a person based on the initial information we learn about a person is called the primacy effect. The primacy effect reflects greater attention to trait information presented early than to that presented late Webster,Richter and Kruglanski found that the primacy effect was more pronounced for participants who were mentally fatigued than for those who were relatively alert We observe what a person does and says we purposefully think about what those behaviours reveal about hisher personal qualities Brown & Bassili(2002) suggested that people may generate trait like labels from observing a persons behaviour Labels than become automatically associated in memory with whatever stimulus happens to have been around at the same time Brown& Bassili(2002) showed that trait labels from behavioural descriptions may become associated with almost any stimulus including inanimate ones Self-concept-your knowledge, feelings and ideas about yourself Self- is a persons distinct individuality Self-schema- a mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about oneself ; a cognitive structure that organises the knowledge, feelings and ideas that constitute the self-concept Self-schema then is a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge feelings and ideas that constitute the self-concept Self-concept is dynamic; it changes with experience Thinking of ourselves only in terms of who we are at present does not accurately reflect how we will think of ourselves in the future or the kind of person we might become Cross-cultural psychologists- are interested in the effects of cultures on behaviour Term culture traditionally referred to a group of people who live together in a common environment who share customs and religious beliefs and practices and who often resemble each other genetically www.notesolution.com
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