Textbook Notes (378,598)
CA (167,188)
UTSC (19,212)
Psychology (9,983)
PSYA02H3 (979)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter

ch 15, 16,18

29 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Ch 15
-Summarized story: person wants to buy a car for cheap price, gets for $1000 but sale backfires on
him)
Lowballing- a technique whereby a salesperson quotes a very low price, only to find a
reason (for ex a mistake while reading the invoice) to raise the price later.
-most human activites are social
Social Psychology: the branch/field of Psychology that studies our social nature.
oGordon Allport states that Social Psychology is the examination of how the
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined,
or implied presence of others.
-interactions with other people affect all aspects of human behavior from infancy through old age.
-Perception which we think of as private, solitary events-are affected by our interactions with
others.
-sizing up a social situation depends on many cognitive processes including memory, concept
formation skills, sensory and perceptual abilities.
Social Cognition: how people attend to perceive, interpret, and respond to the social
world.
SCHEMATA & SOCIAL COGNITION
-we all form impression of others: neighbours, friends, teachers
oSolomon Aschs: how do the perception, thoughts, and motives of one person become
known to other persons?
Impression Formation: the way in which we integrate info about anothers trait into a
coherent sense of who the person is.
oAsch: our impressions of others are formed by more complex rules than just a simple
sum of the characteristics that we use to describe people.
Schema: a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes
information about a person, place, or thing.
A central theme of cognitive Psychology s the concept of Schema. (Schemata is plural
form)
Central Traits: personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of
other traits.
Central traits impart meaning to other known traits and suggest the presence of yet
other traits that have to be revealed.
oAsch: proposed that certain traits called central traits, organize and influence our
understanding of other traits a person possesses to a greater extent than do other traits.
Aschs tests of this idea focused on the warm and cold trait dimension. In one study, he provided
all participants with the same basic list of traits that were said to describe a hypothetical
person: intelligent, skillful, industrious, determined, practical. Some participants were also told
that the person was warm, while others were told cold. Those who heard warm” said
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positive impressions about the imaginary character, where those who were told cold imagined
negative impression.
-traits such as polite and blunt are known as Peripheral traits.
Primary Effect: the tendency to form impressions of people based on the first information
we receive about them.
-to determine whether first impressions overpower later on impressions
oAsch: presented one of the following lists of words to each of the two groups ofpeople
1. Intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious
2.Envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious, intelligent
-List 1 & 2 contain the same word but in reverse order. People who heard list 1 thought
of a person as able and productive, those who heard the second list aid the person has
serious problems.
oWebster, Richter, Kruglanski found that the primary effect was more pronounced for
participants who were mentally fatigued than for those who were relatively alert.
oBrown and Bassili: suggested that people may generate trait like labels from
observing a persons behavior. These labels become automatically associated in memory
with whatever stimulus happens to have been around at the same time.Ex: Brown and
Bassili showed trait labels from behavioural descriptions may become associated with
almost any stimulus, including inanimate ones. If firefighter discussed his heroic
actions he would be described brave but if he was said to have been eating a banana
while being heroic the outcome is illogical and nonsensical from a perception point of
view, b/c people presumably do not eat bananas to be persons.
THE SELF
Self-concept: self-identity, Ones knowledge, feelings, and ideas about oneself.
-core of the self-concept is the self-schema
Self-schema: A mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about one-
self; a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that consitute
the self-concept.
CULTURE AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
: identifying the complex interchange between biological, familial, social, and
cultural influences on the self is a daunting challenge, but one that has been taken
up with a considerable degree of enthusiasm in social psychology.
Cross-cultural Psychology: A branch of Psychology that studies the effects of culture on
behavior. The term culture referred to a group of people who live together in a common
environment, who share customs and religious beliefs and practices, and who resemble each
other genetically. Culture differ with respect to two major classes of variables
1.Biological Variables include such factors as diet, genetics, and endemic diseases.
2.Ecological Variables include such factors as geography, climate, political systems,
population density, religion, cultural myths and education.
Cross -cultural research: culture is considered to be a treatment variable, something
like n independent variable.
Many cultural psychologists believe that basic psychological processes may be universal,
but that these processes are informed by culture.
www.notesolution.com
Socio-cultural psychologists have investigated the interplay of culture and social
behaviors, personality differences, problem solving, intellectual abilities, perceptual
abilities, and aesthetics.
Western cultures often emphasize the uniqueness of the individual and an appreciation
if being different from others. In contrast, Japanese and other Eastern cultures often
emphasize paying attention to others and the relatedness of the individual and others.
oMarcus and Kitayama: have conceptualized two construal (understanding) of
the self that reflect such cultural differences. Independent construal:
emphasizes the uniqueness of the self, its autonomy from others, and self-
reliance. Interdependent construal: emphasizes the interconnectedness of
people and the role that others play in developing on individuals self-concept.
Clarity: refers to how confident people are that they possess particular attributes, how
sharply defined they believe those attributes are, and how internally and temporally
consistent they think their attributes are.
High self-concept clarity more closely matches an independent construal of self than an
interdependent construal.
Attribution: the process by which people infer the causes of other peoples behavior.
DISPOSTITION VS SITUATION
The causes of a persons behavior is the relative importance of situational (external) and
dispositional (internal) factors.
External Factors: stimuli in the physical and social environment, such as living
conditions, other people, societal norms, and laws.
Internal Factors: a persons traits, needs, and intentions.
KELLEYS THEORY OF ATTRIBUTION
We attribute the behavior of other people to external (situational) or internal (personal)
causes on the basis of three types of information: consensus, distinctiveness, and
consistency
Consensual behavior: behavior enacted in common by a large number of people in
a particular situation-is usually attributed to external causes. Ex: if you hear Rob
praise about a new campus, and have heard many others say the same things (high
consensus) , you will be tempted to understand Robs praise as caused by the
qualities of the club (an external attribution). If the club had disagreed with Robs
evaluation (low consensus) you will be tempted to see Robs review as reflecting
something personal about him (internal attribution). Maybe Rob has no taste etc.
Distinctiveness: the extent to which a person behaves differently toward different
people, events or other stimuli. Ex: if you have never heard Rob praise a club as
highly as he praises the new one, his behaviour is high in distinctiveness.
Behaviours that are distinctively associated with a particular situation are
attributed to that external cause.
Consistency: the extent to which a persons behaviour is consistent across time
toward another person, an event, or a stimulus.
ATTRIBUTIONAL BIASES
-two kinds of bias: 1) the fundamental attribution error 2) false consensus
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Description
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Ch 15 -Summarized story: person wants to buy a car for cheap price, gets for $1000 but sale backfires on him) Lowballing- a technique whereby a salesperson quotes a very low price, only to find a reason (for ex a mistake while reading the invoice) to raise the price later. -most human activites are social Social Psychology: the branchfield of Psychology that studies our social nature. o Gordon Allport states that Social Psychology is the examination of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. -interactions with other people affect all aspects of human behavior from infancy through old age. -Perception which we think of as private, solitary events-are affected by our interactions with others. -sizing up a social situation depends on many cognitive processes including memory, concept formation skills, sensory and perceptual abilities. Social Cognition: how people attend to perceive, interpret, and respond to the social world. SCHEMATA & SOCIAL COGNITION -we all form impression of others: neighbours, friends, teachers o Solomon Aschs: how do the perception, thoughts, and motives of one person become known to other persons? Impression Formation: the way in which we integrate info about anothers trait into a coherent sense of who the person is. o Asch: our impressions of others are formed by more complex rules than just a simple sum of the characteristics that we use to describe people. Schema: a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place, or thing. A central theme of cognitive Psychology s the concept of Schema. (Schemata is plural form) Central Traits: personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of other traits. Central traits impart meaning to other known traits and suggest the presence of yet other traits that have to be revealed. o Asch: proposed that certain traits called central traits, organize and influence our understanding of other traits a person possesses to a greater extent than do other traits. Aschs tests of this idea focused on the warm and cold trait dimension. In one study, he provided all participants with the same basic list of traits that were said to describe a hypothetical person: intelligent, skillful, industrious, determined, practical. Some participants were also told that the person was warm, while others were told cold. Those who heard warm said www.notesolution.com positive impressions about the imaginary character, where those who were told cold imagined negative impression. -traits such as polite and blunt are known as Peripheral traits. Primary Effect: the tendency to form impressions of people based on the first information we receive about them. -to determine whether first impressions overpower later on impressions o Asch: presented one of the following lists of words to each of the two groups ofpeople 1. Intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious 2. Envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious, intelligent -List 1 & 2 contain the same word but in reverse order. People who heard list 1 thought of a person as able and productive, those who heard the second list aid the person has serious problems. o Webster, Richter, Kruglanski found that the primary effect was more pronounced for participants who were mentally fatigued than for those who were relatively alert. o Brown and Bassili: suggested that people may generate trait like labels from observing a persons behavior. These labels become automatically associated in memory with whatever stimulus happens to have been around at the same time.Ex: Brown and Bassili showed trait labels from behavioural descriptions may become associated with almost any stimulus, including inanimate ones. If firefighter discussed his heroic actions he would be described brave but if he was said to have been eating a banana while being heroic the outcome is illogical and nonsensical from a perception point of view, bc people presumably do not eat bananas to be persons. THE SELF Self-concept: self-identity, Ones knowledge, feelings, and ideas about oneself. -core of the self-concept is the self-schema Self-schema: A mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about one- self; a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that consitute the self-concept. CULTURE AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY : identifying the complex interchange between biological, familial, social, and cultural influences on the self is a daunting challenge, but one that has been taken up with a considerable degree of enthusiasm in social psychology. Cross-cultural Psychology: A branch of Psychology that studies the effects of culture on behavior. The term culture referred to a group of people who live together in a common environment, who share customs and religious beliefs and practices, and who resemble each other genetically. Culture differ with respect to two major classes of variables 1. Biological Variables include such factors as diet, genetics, and endemic diseases. 2. Ecological Variables include such factors as geography, climate, political systems, population density, religion, cultural myths and education. Cross -cultural research: culture is considered to be a treatment variable, something like n independent variable. Many cultural psychologists believe that basic psychological processes may be universal, but that these processes are informed by culture. www.notesolution.com
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