positive impressions about the imaginary character, where those who were told “cold” imagined
-traits such as “polite and blunt are known as Peripheral traits.
•Primary Effect: the tendency to form impressions of people based on the first information
we receive about them.
-to determine whether first impressions overpower later on impressions
oAsch: presented one of the following lists of words to each of the two groups ofpeople
1. Intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, envious
2.Envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious, intelligent
-List 1 & 2 contain the same word but in reverse order. People who heard list 1 thought
of a person as “able and productive”, those who heard the second list aid the person has
oWebster, Richter, Kruglanski found that the primary effect was more pronounced for
participants who were mentally fatigued than for those who were relatively alert.
oBrown and Bassili: suggested that people may generate trait like labels from
observing a person’s behavior. These labels become automatically associated in memory
with whatever stimulus happens to have been around at the same time.Ex: Brown and
Bassili showed trait labels from behavioural descriptions may become associated with
almost any stimulus, including inanimate ones. If firefighter discussed his heroic
actions he would be described brave but if he was said to have been eating a banana
while being heroic the outcome is illogical and nonsensical from a perception point of
view, b/c people presumably do not eat bananas to be persons.
•Self-concept: self-identity, Ones knowledge, feelings, and ideas about oneself.
-core of the self-concept is the self-schema
•Self-schema: A mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about one-
self; a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that consitute
CULTURE AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
: identifying the complex interchange between biological, familial, social, and
cultural influences on the self is a daunting challenge, but one that has been taken
up with a considerable degree of enthusiasm in social psychology.
•Cross-cultural Psychology: A branch of Psychology that studies the effects of culture on
behavior. The term “culture” referred to a group of people who live together in a common
environment, who share customs and religious beliefs and practices, and who resemble each
other genetically. Culture differ with respect to two major classes of variables
1.Biological Variables include such factors as diet, genetics, and endemic diseases.
2.Ecological Variables include such factors as geography, climate, political systems,
population density, religion, cultural myths and education.
Cross -cultural research: culture is considered to be a treatment variable, something
like n independent variable.
Many cultural psychologists believe that basic psychological processes may be universal,
but that these processes are informed by culture.