Textbook Notes (380,777)
CA (168,210)
UTSC (19,296)
Psychology (10,044)
PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter

ch14-18

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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CH.14
Psychodynamic Approach
-Freud was first to claim that what we do is often irrational and reasons for our
behaviour are seldom and conscious.
-Psychodynamic is a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is
in a state of conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience.
-Mind is a battleground for the warring functions of instinct reason and conscience
-Freud and Breur published a seminal book called studies on hysteria
-Anna O. suffered from a staggering and number of symptoms including loss of
speech, disturbances in vision, headaches, loss of feeling in right arm and was
asked to think of the time when the symptoms had started
-she revealed it as if it was as if the emotion had been bottled up and reliving the
original experiences had uncorked them
-Anna O. symptoms were eliminated due to release of energy (catharsis) but not
cured to Ellenberg , she cont’d to take morphine for distress caused by disorders
breur cured
-All human behaviour is motivated by instinctual drives, which when activated
supply psychic energy. According to Freud, if something prevents the psychic
energy caused by activation of drive from being discharged psychological
disturbances will result.
-Instinctual drives triggered by events in person’s life. During a traumatic event, a
person may try to deny or hide their strong emotional reaction rather than express
it.
-There is a cost to hiding emotional reactions and suppressing the psychic energy
that fuels them; the emotion may be expressed neurotically with excessive
anxiety. The individual won’t recall their extreme emotional reactions because
they will be embedded in the unconscious, the inaccessible part of the mind.
-Mind represses the memories of traumatic events
-There are 3 structures of the mind: id, ego and superego
-Id- completely unconscious and contains the libido- primary source of instinctual
motivation for all psychic forces, instinctual fore that’s unresponsive to demands
of reality, primary source of motivation. Id only obeys one rule which is to obtain
immediate gratification in any form called pleasure principle. Ex; if ur hungry the
id compels you to eat.
-The ego; thinking, planning and protective self and it control and intergrates
behaviour. It acts as the mediator between the Id and superego. It is driven by the
reality principle, the tendency to satisfy the id’s demand realistically by
compromising the demands of id and superego.
-Superego is subdivided into the conscience and the ego-ideal. The conscience is
the internalization of the rules and restrictions of society. It determines which
behaviours are permissible and punishes wrongdoing with feelings of guilt. The
ego ideal is the internalization of what society values and what the person will
strive to achieve.
www.notesolution.com
-Result of conflict is compromise formation between the id and the superego
through phenomena such as dream, slips of the tongue
-Manifest content of a dream- actual storyline is disguised version of its latent
content- hidden message by the unconscious.
-Free association; is a method of analysis in which an individual is asked to relax,
clear mind and report all the thoughts, images, feelings and perceptions that come
to mind.
Defence mechanism
-the ego contains defence mechanisms- mental systems that become active
whenever the id’s unconscious instinctual drives come into conflict with the
superego’s internalized prohibitions of the super ego
-Repression- responsible for keeping threatening or anxiety provoking memories
from our conscious awareness. Ex; unable to rmr childhood sexual abuses or other
traumatic events that occurred earlier in life. Most powerful defence mechanisms.
-Reaction formation- involves replacing an anxiety provoking idea with its
opposite. Ex; not liking the person but acting kind towards them
-Projection; involves denying one’s own unacceptable id based desires and finding
evidence of these desires in other’s behaviour. Ex; denying ur negative feelings
toward a person but believing that the person has negative feelings towards you.
-Sublimation; diversion of psychic energy from an unacceptable drive to an
acceptable one, ex; diverting energy from the sex drive to produce a work of art.
-Rationalization; creating an unacceptable reason for a behaviour that is actually
performed for a less acceptable reason. Ex; asserting that your reason for viewing
pornographic material is to understand its social implications, when in fact you’re
doing so for sexual gratification
-Conversion (hysteria); manifestation of a psychic conflict in terms of physical
symptoms. Ex; a psychic conflict, perhaps aroused by a particular person, causes
you to develop symptoms of deafness or blindness to avoid contact with them
Freud’s psychosexual theory of personality development
-Fixation- cont’d attachment of psychic energy to an erogenous zone (seek
pleasure from specific parts of body) due to incomplete passage through one of
psychosexual stages.
-Oral stage- 1st psychosexual stage- mouth is the major erogenous zone due to
reduction of hunger drive, smoking or hoarding (id)
-Anal stage- it begins during the 2nd year of life. Sensual pleasure derives from
emptying bowels.
-Phallic stage; age 3, erogenous zone is the genital stage. Attachment to the
opposite sex and jealous of the same sex parent. Oedipus complex; son envy’s
father. Electra complex; she doesn’t have penis so envy’s mother. It is solved
through identification; idolize same sex parent, gender roles are learned. It is an
initial source of superego.
-Latency period; child’s sexual instinctual drive is mostly submerged.
www.notesolution.com
-Genital stage; adolescent develops adult sexual desire to young people of the
opposite sex
-Carl Jung; libido was a positive creative force that propels people toward personal
growth. To Jung ego was totally conscious and contained the ideas, perceptions,
emotions, and memories we are aware. Collective unconscious- memories and
ideas that are inherited from our ancestors. Archetypes; universal thought forms
and patterns that Jung resided in collective unconscious on how to behave,
perceive, and think in a certain way.
-Alfred Adler; striving for superiority; motivation to achieve one’s potential. Adler
argued that striving for superiority is born from our need to compensate for our
inferiority. Striving for superiority is affected by another force, social interest
which is an innate desire to contribute to society.
-Karen Horney; individuals suffer from anxiety caused by insecurities in
relationships. People often feel alone, helpless, uncomfortable in their interactions
with others. Individual with basic anxiety has 3 options. Moving towards others-
accept the situation and become dependent on others, desire for approval or
affection. Moving against others- resist the situation and become aggressive. This
strategy may involve an exaggerated need for power, exploitation of others,
recognition or achievement. Moving away from others- withdraw from others and
become isolated. This strategy may involve an exaggerated need for self
sufficiency, privacy or independence. Basic orientations- personality
characteristics that correspond to the strategies of moving towards other, against
or away from others. Self effacing solution- moving towards others and desire to
be loved, self expansive solution-moving against others, desire to master one self
and resignation solution- moving away from others, striving to be independent of
others.
-Erik Erikson- identity crisis
-Melanie Klein and object relations theory; personality is the reflection of
relationships that individual establishes with others as an infant.
-Humanistic approach- study of personality emphasizes positive, fulfilling
elements of life. They’re interested in nurturing personal growth. Life satisfaction
and positive human lives.
-Self actualization (maslow); realization of one’s true intellectual and emotional
potential. Hierarchy of needs, until the needs are met, we can’t be motivated by
needs founded in the next level. Self actualization- to achieve one’s full potential;
aesthetic needs- harmony, order, beauty; cognitive needs-curiosity, exploration,
understanding of world; esteem needs- to be competent and recognized;
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CH.14 Psychodynamic Approach - Freud was first to claim that what we do is often irrational and reasons for our behaviour are seldom and conscious. - Psychodynamic is a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience. - Mind is a battleground for the warring functions of instinct reason and conscience - Freud and Breur published a seminal book called studies on hysteria - Anna O. suffered from a staggering and number of symptoms including loss of speech, disturbances in vision, headaches, loss of feeling in right arm and was asked to think of the time when the symptoms had started - she revealed it as if it was as if the emotion had been bottled up and reliving the original experiences had uncorked them - Anna O. symptoms were eliminated due to release of energy (catharsis) but not cured to Ellenberg , she contd to take morphine for distress caused by disorders breur cured - All human behaviour is motivated by instinctual drives, which when activated supply psychic energy. According to Freud, if something prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of drive from being discharged psychological disturbances will result. - Instinctual drives triggered by events in persons life. During a traumatic event, a person may try to deny or hide their strong emotional reaction rather than express it. - There is a cost to hiding emotional reactions and suppressing the psychic energy that fuels them; the emotion may be expressed neurotically with excessive anxiety. The individual wont recall their extreme emotional reactions because they will be embedded in the unconscious, the inaccessible part of the mind. - Mind represses the memories of traumatic events - There are 3 structures of the mind: id, ego and superego - Id- completely unconscious and contains the libido- primary source of instinctual motivation for all psychic forces, instinctual fore thats unresponsive to demands of reality, primary source of motivation. Id only obeys one rule which is to obtain immediate gratification in any form called pleasure principle. Ex; if ur hungry the id compels you to eat. - The ego; thinking, planning and protective self and it control and intergrates behaviour. It acts as the mediator between the Id and superego. It is driven by the reality principle, the tendency to satisfy the ids demand realistically by compromising the demands of id and superego. - Superego is subdivided into the conscience and the ego-ideal. The conscience is the internalization of the rules and restrictions of society. It determines which behaviours are permissible and punishes wrongdoing with feelings of guilt. The ego ideal is the internalization of what society values and what the person will strive to achieve. www.notesolution.com- Result of conflict is compromise formation between the id and the superego through phenomena such as dream, slips of the tongue - Manifest content of a dream- actual storyline is disguised version of its latent content- hidden message by the unconscious. - Free association; is a method of analysis in which an individual is asked to relax, clear mind and report all the thoughts, images, feelings and perceptions that come to mind. Defence mechanism - the ego contains defence mechanisms- mental systems that become active whenever the ids unconscious instinctual drives come into conflict with the superegos internalized prohibitions of the super ego - Repression- responsible for keeping threatening or anxiety provoking memories from our conscious awareness. Ex; unable to rmr childhood sexual abuses or other traumatic events that occurred earlier in life. Most powerful defence mechanisms. - Reaction formation- involves replacing an anxiety provoking idea with its opposite. Ex; not liking the person but acting kind towards them - Projection; involves denying ones own unacceptable id based desires and finding evidence of these desires in others behaviour. Ex; denying ur negative feelings toward a person but believing that the person has negative feelings towards you. - Sublimation; diversion of psychic energy from an unacceptable drive to an acceptable one, ex; diverting energy from the sex drive to produce a work of art. - Rationalization; creating an unacceptable reason for a behaviour that is actually performed for a less acceptable reason. Ex; asserting that your reason for viewing pornographic material is to understand its social implications, when in fact youre doing so for sexual gratification - Conversion (hysteria); manifestation of a psychic conflict in terms of physical symptoms. Ex; a psychic conflict, perhaps aroused by a particular person, causes you to develop symptoms of deafness or blindness to avoid contact with them Freuds psychosexual theory of personality development - Fixation- contd attachment of psychic energy to an erogenous zone (seek pleasure from specific parts of body) due to incomplete passage through one of psychosexual sstges. - Oral stage- 1 psychosexual stage- mouth is the major erogenous zone due to reduction of hunger drive, smoking or hoarding (id) - Anal stage- it begins during the 2 year of life. Sensual pleasure derives from emptying bowels. - Phallic stage; age 3, erogenous zone is the genital stage. Attachment to the opposite sex and jealous of the same sex parent. Oedipus complex; son envys father. Electra complex; she doesnt have penis so envys mother. It is solved through identification; idolize same sex parent, gender roles are learned. It is an initial source of superego. - Latency period; childs sexual instinctual drive is mostly submerged. www.notesolution.com
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