Textbook Notes (381,070)
CA (168,341)
UTSC (19,304)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 16

chapter 16

8 Pages
61 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Chapter 16: Life style, stress and health.
-Culture evolution: the adaptive change of a culture to recurrent environmental
pressures.
Cultural evolution: lifestyle choices and consequences.
Unlike bio evol driven by bio forces, cultural evol is driven mainly by psyc forces. Its a
product of human intellect and physical capacity, both of which have strong genetic
components.
-Cultural evol has been guiding force behind social, cultural, tech innovation in areas
as law, art, science, med, engineering. Cultural evol has been the primary agent
involved in shaping lifestyle, the aggregate behaviour of a person, or the way a
person leads his or her life.
In ancient times, lifestyle was the same for everyone. Today, no predominant
lifestyle; cultural evol has afforded us the luxury of choosing among many
alternatives.
Cultural evol has resulted in a much higher standard of living tht past but also
produced threats to our health and safety.
A healthy lifestyle can be viewed as one that ensures an individuals physical and
psychological well-being.
WHY be unhealthy lifestyle?
Altho the consequences of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours hav obvious bio
implications, the behaviours can be acquired ad maintained by both BIO and PSYC
factors.
*Most adaptations resulting from bio evol concern only those relevant to surviving
to sexual maturity, reproducing, and rearing offspring until they become self-
sufficient. Many if not most of the con of unhealthy lifestyle dont appear till ppl are
well beyond reproductive age.
The law of effect plays a powerful role in cultural evol. One that appears to be
analogous to the role of natural selection in bio evol. The law of effect states that
behaviors that produce fav con tend to be repeated, vice versa.
Many unhealthy beh have reinforcing con in the SR and damaging con in the LR.
Takes the form of “enjoy now, suffer later.
The law of effect partialy accounts for why those who adopt unhealthy lifestyles
are not weeded out thru cultural evolution.
Stress and Health:
Stress- a pattern of physiological, behavioural, emotional, and cognitive responses to
real or imagined stimuli that are perceived as blocking a goal or endangering or
otherwise threatening our well-being.
*These stimuli are generally aversive and are called stressors.
-Stress is a product of natural selection. Its a behavioural adaptation that helped our
ancestors fight or flee from wild animals and enemies. Stress often helps us confront
or escape threatening situations.
-Stress is not a direct product of cultural evol, the changes in environ wrought by
cultural evol have helped make stress commonplace.
-Stressors come in many forms. May be catastrophic in nature, or belong to the class
of trivial, evry day irritations. Not always bad( athletic compt and exams) can affect
www.notesolution.com
beh in + ways.
*But when stress over long T, can have effect on psyc and phy health.
The biological Basis of Stress
-Phy response to stressors is governed by the autonomic nervous system, which is
controlled by the hypothalamus.
stress is a bio response that is experienced as an emotion, although the form it
takes varies depending on the nature of the stressor. In some situations, we may feel
frightened, and in others we may feel inspired or exhilarated.
-When ind senses a stressor, hypothalamus sends signals to the autonomic nervous
system and to pituitary gland, both of which respond by stimulating body organs to
change their normal activity:
Heart rate increases, blood pressure ^, vessels constrict, bsugar ^, blood flow
directed away from extremities and toward major organs.
Breathing becomes deeper and faster and air passages dilate, permits more air in
lung.
Digestion stops and perspiration ^.
Adrenal glands secrete adrenalin (Epinephrine), which stimulates the Heart and
other organs.
-Its easy to see these changes are adaptive. Each prepare body to deal w/ the stressor
(Collectively). These phy responses produced a heightened psycho and phy state of
alertness and readiness for action! (confront or fleehas the same bio response.
*Regardless of the nature of the stressor, the bio response is the same.
There are 2 cases in which such responses can be maladaptive. 1st: stress can
produce anxiety, which may impair 1s ability to perform a task. 2nd involves the
effects of prolonged and severe stress. Many lifestyles place ppl in situations in which
they are confronted w/ stressors daily such lifestyles place them at increased risk of
illness.
Selyes General Adaptation Syndrome.
- Selye is a Endocrinologist (exp w/ animals, found that chronic exposure to severe
stressors produced a sequence of 3 physiological stages: Alarm, Resistance,
Exhaustion). *Referred to as the General Adaptation Syndrome.
-Alarm: arousal of autonomic nervous system and occur when the org is 1st
confronted w/ a stressor. The orgs resistance to stressor temp drops below normal,
and it may experience shock—impairment of normal physiological functioning.
*continued exposure to the stressor, enters resistance.
-Resistance: autonomic nervous system returns to normal functioning. Resistance
to stressor ^ and plateaus at above-normal level.
*The stage of resistance relects the orgs adaptation to environ stressors. W/ more
stress.
-Exhaustion: loses ability to adapt, resistance plummets to below-normal levels, org
susceptible to illness and even death.
*Bio speaking, were only able to adapt to environ stressors for only so long
be4 we become susceptible to exhaustion and illness. Extent to which ppl
can adapt varies and depends on how the stressor is perceived.
www.notesolution.com
Recall: emotional responses evolved cuz they are useful and adaptive. How can they
harm us?
our emotional responses are designed primarily to cope w/ short-term events.
Cannon: Fight or Flight response, phy rxns that prepare us for the strenuous
efforts required by fighting or running away.
-When the threatening situations are cont, produce a more or less continuous stress
response. can leads to CHD and other phy problems.
*Deleterious effects of stress on health
Physiological Mechanisms Involved in Stress
Recall: emotions consist of behavioural, autonomic, and hormonal responses.
*Autonomic and hormonal responses are the ones that can have adverse effects on
health.
-The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is active, and the adrenal
glands secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine and steroid stress hormones.
-Effects of sympathetic activity are similar to those of the adrenal hormones.
-Epinephrine releases the stored form of glucose in muscles, provide E for strenuous
exercise.
-Tgt w/ norepinephrine, it also ^ blood flow to muscles by ^ output of the heart, also ^
blood pressure. In LR=CHD.
-Stress-related hormone cortisol: steroid secreted by the cortex of adrenal gland.
Called a glucocorticoid cuz it has profound effects on glucose metabolism, effects
similar to those of epinephrine. It also help break down protein and convert it to
glucose, help make fats for energy, ^ blood flow, stimulate beh responsiveness, by
affecting the brain.
*few cells in body doesnt contain glucocorticoid receptors, so few prt of body are
unaffected by these hormones.
-Glucocorticoids do more than help an animal react to a stressful situationthe help
it survive.
Ex: when adrenal glands removed, rats more susceptible to effect stress. Normal rat
stride, w/out adrenal gland, dies.
*must give more amt of glucocorticoid to ppl whose adrenal glands have been
damaged or removed under stress.
--*the most harmful effects of stress are caused by the prolonged secretion
of glucocorticoids.
-altho S-term effects of glucocorticoids are esseitnal, the L-term are damaging.
Include: ^b pressure-heart attack,stroke, damage muscle, diabetes, infertility,
stunted growth, inhibition of the inflammatory responses (harder for body to heal
after injury), and suppression of the immune system (vulnerable to disease).
**Extreme stress cause brain damage in primates. Some monkeys died cuz of stress
(enlarged adrenal glands, sign of chronic stress. Neurons in a region of their
hippocampal formations were destroyed) *Very worrying cuz hippocampus plays a
vital role in learning and memory. Severe stress appears to cause brain damage in
humans as well.
--Brain degenerated in CT scan of ppl thats been tortured, experienced mass
violence.
Cognitive Appraisal and Stress
-Many of the harmful effects of L term stress are caused by own rxns- secretion of
stress hormone
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 16: Life style, stress and health. -Culture evolution: the adaptive change of a culture to recurrent environmental pressures. Cultural evolution: lifestyle choices and consequences. Unlike bio evol driven by bio forces, cultural evol is driven mainly by psyc forces. Its a product of human intellect and physical capacity, both of which have strong genetic components. -Cultural evol has been guiding force behind social, cultural, tech innovation in areas as law, art, science, med, engineering. Cultural evol has been the primary agent involved in shaping lifestyle, the aggregate behaviour of a person, or the way a person leads his or her life. In ancient times, lifestyle was the same for everyone. Today, no predominant lifestyle; cultural evol has afforded us the luxury of choosing among many alternatives. Cultural evol has resulted in a much higher standard of living tht past but also produced threats to our health and safety. A healthy lifestyle can be viewed as one that ensures an individuals physical and psychological well-being. WHY be unhealthy lifestyle? Altho the consequences of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours hav obvious bio implications, the behaviours can be acquired ad maintained by both BIO and PSYC factors. *Most adaptations resulting from bio evol concern only those relevant to surviving to sexual maturity, reproducing, and rearing offspring until they become self- sufficient. Many if not most of the con of unhealthy lifestyle dont appear till ppl are well beyond reproductive age. The law of effect plays a powerful role in cultural evol. One that appears to be analogous to the role of natural selection in bio evol. The law of effect states that behaviors that produce fav con tend to be repeated, vice versa. Many unhealthy beh have reinforcing con in the SR and damaging con in the LR. Takes the form of enjoy now, suffer later. The law of effect partialy accounts for why those who adopt unhealthy lifestyles are not weeded out thru cultural evolution. Stress and Health: Stress- a pattern of physiological, behavioural, emotional, and cognitive responses to real or imagined stimuli that are perceived as blocking a goal or endangering or otherwise threatening our well-being. *These stimuli are generally aversive and are called stressors. -Stress is a product of natural selection. Its a behavioural adaptation that helped our ancestors fight or flee from wild animals and enemies. Stress often helps us confront or escape threatening situations. -Stress is not a direct product of cultural evol, the changes in environ wrought by cultural evol have helped make stress commonplace. -Stressors come in many forms. May be catastrophic in nature, or belong to the class of trivial, evry day irritations. Not always bad( athletic compt and exams) can affect www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit