Recall: emotional responses evolved cuz they are useful and adaptive. How can they
our emotional responses are designed primarily to cope w/ short-term events.
Cannon: Fight or Flight response, phy rxns that prepare us for the strenuous
efforts required by fighting or running away.
-When the threatening situations are cont, produce a more or less continuous stress
response. –can leads to CHD and other phy problems.
*Deleterious effects of stress on health
Physiological Mechanisms Involved in Stress
Recall: emotions consist of behavioural, autonomic, and hormonal responses.
*Autonomic and hormonal responses are the ones that can have adverse effects on
-The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is active, and the adrenal
glands secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine and steroid stress hormones.
-Effects of sympathetic activity are similar to those of the adrenal hormones.
-Epinephrine releases the stored form of glucose in muscles, provide E for strenuous
-Tgt w/ norepinephrine, it also ^ blood flow to muscles by ^ output of the heart, also ^
blood pressure. In LR=CHD.
-Stress-related hormone cortisol: steroid secreted by the cortex of adrenal gland.
Called a glucocorticoid cuz it has profound effects on glucose metabolism, effects
similar to those of epinephrine. It also help break down protein and convert it to
glucose, help make fats for energy, ^ blood flow, stimulate beh responsiveness, by
affecting the brain.
*few cells in body doesn’t contain glucocorticoid receptors, so few prt of body are
unaffected by these hormones.
-Glucocorticoids do more than help an animal react to a stressful situation—the help
Ex: when adrenal glands removed, rats more susceptible to – effect stress. Normal rat
stride, w/out adrenal gland, dies.
*must give more amt of glucocorticoid to ppl whose adrenal glands have been
damaged or removed under stress.
--*the most harmful effects of stress are caused by the prolonged secretion
-altho S-term effects of glucocorticoids are esseitnal, the L-term are damaging.
Include: ^b pressure-heart attack,stroke, damage muscle, diabetes, infertility,
stunted growth, inhibition of the inflammatory responses (harder for body to heal
after injury), and suppression of the immune system (vulnerable to disease).
**Extreme stress cause brain damage in primates. Some monkeys died cuz of stress
(enlarged adrenal glands, sign of chronic stress. Neurons in a region of their
hippocampal formations were destroyed) *Very worrying cuz hippocampus plays a
vital role in learning and memory. Severe stress appears to cause brain damage in
humans as well.
--Brain degenerated in CT scan of ppl that’s been tortured, experienced mass
Cognitive Appraisal and Stress
-Many of the harmful effects of L term stress are caused by own rxns- secretion of