Textbook Notes (378,302)
CA (167,125)
UTSC (19,207)
Psychology (9,979)
PSYA02H3 (978)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 18

chapter 18 notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 18 – The Treatment of Mental Disorders
Four basic approaches to treatment of mental disorders: insight therapies, behaviour
therapy and cognitive-behaviour therapies, treatment of groups (including treatment of
couples and the development of outreach programs that serve the community), and
biological treatments
Mental Disorders and Psychotherapy
Early Treatment of Mental Disorders:
Mental disorders have been with us since the beginning of human existence
People with the disorders were regarded with fear or awe
Often considered possessed by devils or evil spirits and made to suffer accordingly
Earliest known attempts to treat mental disorders - trephining: drilling holes into a
persons skull; the opening permitted evil spirits to leave the victims head
Signs of healing in prehistoric skulls show that some people survived trephining
People were thought to possess evil spirits; exorcisms performed, beatings, starving, near
drowning, drinking of foul-tasting concoctions
People thought they deserved to be punished because they were ‘evil
A few people in the 18th century decided that disorders reflected diseases and should be
treated medically and with compassion (Johann Wier, 16th century was one of first to
challenge practices combating witchcraft; his writings were banned from Church and re-
emerged in 20th century)
People with mental disorders often consigned to variousasylums to be cared for; most
institutions were very inhumane - kept in chains, wallowed in their own excrement
Many treatments were only a little better than the tortures used before to drive out evil
spirits - ex. Tied up, doused in cold water, forced to vomit, etc.
Humanitarians changed this treatment
Philippe Pinel - believed most mental patients would respond well to kind treatment; his
patients showed improvement
The discovery of antipsychotic drugs and improvements in psychotherapy have freed
many people who would otherwise be in institutions
www.notesolution.com
The Development of Psychotherapy:
Mesmer - theory of “magnetic fluxes - he attempted to effect cures by manipulating iron
rods and bottles of chemicals
He hypnotized his patients and alleviated some of their symptoms; hypnosis was first
known as mesmerism
Freud created practice of psychoanalysis (ch.14) - his methods are still influential in
today’s treatment
Therapists adopt approaches that fit their views of why people behave the way they do
Therapists who believe that that behaviour is strongly influenced by the environment and
peoples perception of them will use cognitive-behavioural approaches
Those that believe behaviour is strongly influenced by biological factors are likely to use
a combination of drug therapy and psychotherapy
Most therapists use a more general, eclectic approach which involves the therapist using
whatever methods they feel will work best for a particular client at a particular time
seek the form that will best suit the client—often combining different treatment
approaches
Insight Therapies (insight will lead to a cure)
Insight therapy: assume that people are essentially normal but learn maladaptive thought
patters and emotions, which are revealed in maladaptive behaviours
Viewing behaviours as symptom of deeper underlying psychological problems
once the person understands their problems, the behaviours will cease
Some insight therapies focus on the clients past; Client-centered and Gestalt therapies
emphasize the present (attempt to get the client to see the effects of their maladaptive
thoughts and find more adaptive ways of living)
Psychoanalysis: a form of therapy aimed at providing the client with insight into their
unconscious motivations and impulses
clues about the origins of intrapsychic conflict are revealed through dreams, physical
problems, memory (or failure to remember certain things) manner of speech and their
reactions to therapy
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 18 The Treatment of Mental Disorders Four basic approaches to treatment of mental disorders: insight therapies, behaviour therapy and cognitive-behaviour therapies, treatment of groups (including treatment of couples and the development of outreach programs that serve the community), and biological treatments Mental Disorders and Psychotherapy Early Treatment of Mental Disorders: Mental disorders have been with us since the beginning of human existence People with the disorders were regarded with fear or awe Often considered possessed by devils or evil spirits and made to suffer accordingly Earliest known attempts to treat mental disorders - trephining: drilling holes into a persons skull; the opening permitted evil spirits to leave the victims head Signs of healing in prehistoric skulls show that some people survived trephining People were thought to possess evil spirits; exorcisms performed, beatings, starving, near drowning, drinking of foul-tasting concoctions People thought they deserved to be punished because they were evil A few people in the 18 century decided that disorders reflected diseases and should be th treated medically and with compassion (Johann Wier, 16 century was one of first to challenge practices combating witchcraft; his writings were banned from Church and re- th emerged in 20 century) People with mental disorders often consigned to various asylums to be cared for; most institutions were very inhumane - kept in chains, wallowed in their own excrement Many treatments were only a little better than the tortures used before to drive out evil spirits - ex. Tied up, doused in cold water, forced to vomit, etc. Humanitarians changed this treatment Philippe Pinel - believed most mental patients would respond well to kind treatment; his patients showed improvement The discovery of antipsychotic drugs and improvements in psychotherapy have freed many people who would otherwise be in institutions www.notesolution.com
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