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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Text Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 17
The Nature and causes of psychological disorders
Introduction
Etioloy: The causes/origins of a disorder
Etiology of psychological disorder is interactions btwn individuals:
oBrain Chem
oGenotype
oChildhood environment
Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
First classifications system of psych disorders recognized by Emil Kraepelin (1883)
What is Abnormal?
Psych disorders characterized by abnormal behaviour and feelings
Abnormal = refers to any departure from the norm
oTake on, also what we dislike/fear
So is someones behaviour particularlry abnormal?
Difference between normal and abnormal behaviour?
oPsych. Stress important feature of psych disorder is not that ones behaviour is abnormal
(different)) but whether its MALADAPTIVE
Maladaptive (from online): Not providing adequate or appropriate adjustment to the
env./situation
Psych disorder causing distress/discomfort/inability to lead productive lives/hold jobs/ relate
to others socially
oTherefore maladaptive behaviour
Doesnt necessarily mean they have a psych. Disorder
Perspectives on the cause of psychological disorders
A complete understanding of psych disorders reuire investigation of genetic, cognitive, and
environmental factos
Many diff perspectives used to study psych. Disorder
The Psychodynamic perspective
Based on Freuds theory, suggesting psych disorder result of intrapsychic conflict of the ID,
ego + superego
oMay center on attempts to control experience of sexual/aggressive impulses
oMay also arise from try to cope with external dangers, traumatic experience
Sometimes conflict is severe causing defense mechanism to not produce resolution necessary
for mental health
oDefense mechanism: distorts reality
oOr Individual function in some areas in a manner characterizing earlier developmental
stage
This results in pysch. Disorders w/ symptoms
oExtreme anxiety
oObsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour
oDepression
oDistorted perceptions and patterns of thinking
oParalysis/blindness w/out cause
Therapists that are specialized in psychodynamics get patients to become aware of their
intrapyschic conflicts and defense mech. regain mental health
www.notesolution.com
The Medical Persepctive
Worked off Hippocrates idea that increase of any of the four humours = emotional problem
oPhysicians used this to dvlp concept of mental illness
Increase in institutions/asylums till there was improvement of these places and ppl who were
specifically trained for medical treatments of these disorders were hired (psychiatrists)
This is based on the idea that
oPsych disorders caused by abnormalities of brain and nervous system that should be
treated just as any other physical illness
Today, bio factors are known to cause psych disorders, therefore drugs are used as remedy for
diseases (schizophrenia, bipolar disease)
Cognitive-Behavioural perspective
Suggests that pysch disorders are learned maladaptive behaviour patterns
oThese can be understood by focusing on ENV. Factors and a persons PERCEPTION of
those factors
This means psych disorder is a result of persons interaction w/ env. (not spontaneous)
W/ env. Persons interpretation of events taking p place
Therapists suggest patients to replace maladaptive thoughts/behaviours w/ adaptive ones
The humanistic Perspective
The lack of confidence that comes about when ppl perceive that they must earn +ve regard
from others
oHumanistic perspective suggests naturalistic dvlpmt occurs w/ unconditional +ve regard
oTherefore lack of confidence occurs when its not unconditional
Become overly sensitive, define their personal value in accordance to others reaction to them
oNo stable/internal value as persons
oFeel no control over out comes of events
oDepression
Goal of this perspective is to persuad patients that they have value
Sociocultural Perspective
Cultural variables influence nature and extent to which ppl interpret own behaviours as
normal/abnormal
oPsycho. Disorders therefore seem to occur in some cultures
Culture bound syndromes
The Biopsychosocial Perspective
All perspectives are equally important
Different approaches can be combined to form better/larger perspective
oEx. Diathesis-stress model: suggests that comb. Of ones genes, early learning
experiences produces predisposition for psych. Disorder
Def. A causal account of psych. Disorders based on the idea that psych disorders
develpp when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors
that exceed his/her abilities to cope w/ them
Therefore, stressors necessary to confront that person to activate/trigger the
gene/cognitive-behavioural coping skills
This model rep. biopsychosocial perspective
oCombines many perspectives
www.notesolution.com
oDef.: A view that the causes of psych. Disorders can best be understood in terms of int.
of biological, psychological and social factors
The DSM-IVE-TR Classification Scheme
common system used to classify psych. Disorders is Diagnostic and statistical Manual of
Mental disorder
oDef: A widely used manaual for classifying psych. Disorders
Provides description of ind. Psychological condition using 5 different criteria called axes
oAxis I
Info. On major psych. Disorders requiring clinical attn..
Includes disorders that may dvlp during childhood
oAxis II
Personality disorders
Diagnosis can be made w/disorders from both axises or may (simultaneously) from one axis
Axis III V: Gives info about life of individual and classifies provided in Axis I and II
oAxis III:
Used to describe severity of stress and the source of stress and duration
oAxis IV
Describes persons overall level of pysch./social/occupational functioning
Estimates the affect this disorder had on the persons quality of life
Works on a 100 point system
100 = absence/near absence of impaired functioning
50 = rep. seirous problems in functioning
10 = impairment resulting injury to individual/others
Disorders can occur together or at different times (comorbid)
oDef.: The appearance of two or more disorders in a single person
This system provides psychiatrists/ologists (etc.) a means of compiling and evaluatin a variet
of personal + pysch info about any one individual
oEx. On using this system, Bottom of 551 552
Some problems with DSM-IV-TR classification
more consistent w/ medical perspective since inf. By psychiatrists
oEmphasizes biological factors potential cog. And env. Factors overlooked
Reliability is also a potential problem
oPsychological testing may be flawed = consistency w/ applications?
Diagnosis is hard sinc psych. Disorders dont have boundaries
Ex. Time span for disorder symptoms
oPost-traumatic stress = 30 days, < 30 days = acute stress
Validity
oIncorrectly diagnosing patients
To fix this, suggestions include moving away from categorizing using medical model
oInstead one should embrace dimensional approach to personality
Ex. Using fivefactor model oof personality
This would prevent multi-axial diagnosis
Dnagers of classifying psychological disorders
oOnce you label someone, they are perceived to be having all characteristics that come w
label
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 17 The Nature and causes of psychological disorders Introduction Etioloy: The causesorigins of a disorder Etiology of psychological disorder is interactions btwn individuals: o Brain Chem o Genotype o Childhood environment Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders First classifications system of psych disorders recognized by Emil Kraepelin (1883) What is Abnormal? Psych disorders characterized by abnormal behaviour and feelings Abnormal = refers to any departure from the norm o Take on, also what we dislikefear So is someones behaviour particularlry abnormal? Difference between normal and abnormal behaviour? o Psych. Stress important feature of psych disorder is not that ones behaviour is abnormal (different)) but whether its MALADAPTIVE Maladaptive (from online): Not providing adequate or appropriate adjustment to the env.situation Psych disorder causing distressdiscomfortinability to lead productive liveshold jobs relate to others socially o Therefore maladaptive behaviour Doesnt necessarily mean they have a psych. Disorder Perspectives on the cause of psychological disorders A complete understanding of psych disorders reuire investigation of genetic, cognitive, and environmental factos Many diff perspectives used to study psych. Disorder The Psychodynamic perspective Based on Freuds theory, suggesting psych disorder result of intrapsychic conflict of the ID, ego + superego o May center on attempts to control experience of sexualaggressive impulses o May also arise from try to cope with external dangers, traumatic experience Sometimes conflict is severe causing defense mechanism to not produce resolution necessary for mental health o Defense mechanism: distorts reality o Or Individual function in some areas in a manner characterizing earlier developmental stage This results in pysch. Disorders w symptoms o Extreme anxiety o Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour o Depression o Distorted perceptions and patterns of thinking o Paralysisblindness wout cause Therapists that are specialized in psychodynamics get patients to become aware of their intrapyschic conflicts and defense mech. regain mental health www.notesolution.com
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