Textbook Notes (381,336)
CA (168,503)
UTSC (19,326)
Psychology (10,054)
PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 17&18

chapter 17 & 18 notes

34 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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CHAPTER 17
etiology: The causes or origins of a disorder
Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
What is Abnormal?
- a better term would be maladaptive
Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders
The psychodynamic perspective
- based on Freuds early work
- psychological disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the id, the ego, and
the superego.
- for some ppl, the conflict becomes so severe that the minds defense mechanisms cannot
produce a solution that is adequate for mental health
- the defence mechanisms end up distorting reality or the person begins to function in some
areas of life characteristic of an earlier developmental stage
The medical perspective
- origins of this perspective come from Hippocrates
- this model is based on the idea that psychological disorders are caused by specific
abnormalities of the brain and nervous system
The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective
- psychological disorders are learned, and caused by a persons interaction with their
environment and the persons subjective interpretation of these events.
The Humanistic Perspective
- psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard
of others.
- They lose their intrinsic value and feel they have no control over outcomes of important
events in their lives
The Sociocultural Perspective
- what is considered normal in one culture may not be normal in another
- psychological disorders exist that appear to occur only in certain cultures; culture-bound
syndrome
www.notesolution.com
The Biopsychosocial Perspective
- A view that the causes of psychological disorders can best be understood in terms of the
interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.
diathesis-stress model: A causal account of psychological disorders based on the idea that
psychological disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and
faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to cope with them.
The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: A manual for classifying
psychological disorders.
Axis 1: Major clinical syndromes
Axis 2: Personality Disorders
Axis 3: Accompanying physical disorders
Axis 4: Specifies the severity and the details of the sources of stress, and approx duration.
Axis 5: Estimates extent to which persons quality of life has been diminished by the
disorder.
Global assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF): (100 means normal functioning, 50 means
serious problems of functioning, 10 means impairment that may lead to injury of individual
or others)
comorbid: The appearance of two or more disorders in a single person.
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www.notesolution.com
Some Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification
- emphasizes biological factors, which in turn means that potential environmental and
cognitive determinants may be overlooked
- reliability: it can be inconsistent across applications; psychological disorders dont have
distinct borders
- validity:: experiment done where a group of associates pretended to have psychological
disorders and were admitted into mental institutions for up to 3 weeks
- false positive outcomes of medical tests; e.g. natural bereavement may be mistaken for
major depressive disorder
DSM-V recommends categorization moves away from the medical model of disorder to
embrace the dimensional approach to personality.
Labelling someone with a disorder can affect clinical judgements...
Diagnosing a psychological disorder only describes the symptoms of the disorder, not the
underlying causes and psychological processes.
The Need for Classification
Even though labelling people as mentally ill sometimes stops people from taking personal
steps towards improvement, it can be advantageous.
We must be able to classify specific disorders reliably and accurately in order to be able to
treat them.
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
- Roughly 11% of Canadians suffer from a psychological disorder or substance-abuse
problem.
- Substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders are the most common.
Clinical versus Actuarial Diagnosis
clinical judgements: Diagnoses of psychological disorders or predictions of future
behaviour based largely on experts experience and knowledge.
actuarial judgements: Diagnoses of psychological disorders or predictions of future
behaviour based on numerical formulas derived from analyses of prior outcomes.
- Actuarial judgements are superior; their reliability is higher. (They always produce the
same judgement for a particular set of data...13% increase in accuracy when actuarial
methods are used!
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CHAPTER 17 etiology: The causes or origins of a disorder Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal? - a better term would be maladaptive Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders The psychodynamic perspective - based on Freuds early work - psychological disorders originate in intrapsychic conflict produced by the id, the ego, and the superego. - for some ppl, the conflict becomes so severe that the minds defense mechanisms cannot produce a solution that is adequate for mental health - the defence mechanisms end up distorting reality or the person begins to function in some areas of life characteristic of an earlier developmental stage The medical perspective - origins of this perspective come from Hippocrates - this model is based on the idea that psychological disorders are caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective - psychological disorders are learned, and caused by a persons interaction with their environment and the persons subjective interpretation of these events. The Humanistic Perspective - psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the positive regard of others. - They lose their intrinsic value and feel they have no control over outcomes of important events in their lives The Sociocultural Perspective - what is considered normal in one culture may not be normal in another - psychological disorders exist that appear to occur only in certain cultures; culture-bound syndrome www.notesolution.comThe Biopsychosocial Perspective - A view that the causes of psychological disorders can best be understood in terms of the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors. diathesis-stress model: A causal account of psychological disorders based on the idea that psychological disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a disorder and faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to cope with them. The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: A manual for classifying psychological disorders. Axis 1: Major clinical syndromes Axis 2: Personality Disorders Axis 3: Accompanying physical disorders Axis 4: Specifies the severity and the details of the sources of stress, and approx duration. Axis 5: Estimates extent to which persons quality of life has been diminished by the disorder. Global assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF): (100 means normal functioning, 50 means serious problems of functioning, 10 means impairment that may lead to injury of individual or others) comorbid: The appearance of two or more disorders in a single person. www.notesolution.comSome Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification - emphasizes biological factors, which in turn means that potential environmental and cognitive determinants may be overlooked - reliability: it can be inconsistent across applications; psychological disorders dont have distinct borders - validity:: experiment done where a group of associates pretended to have psychological disorders and were admitted into mental institutions for up to 3 weeks - false positive outcomes of medical tests; e.g. natural bereavement may be mistaken for major depressive disorder DSM-V recommends categorization moves away from the medical model of disorder to embrace the dimensional approach to personality. Labelling someone with a disorder can affect clinical judgements... Diagnosing a psychological disorder only describes the symptoms of the disorder, not the underlying causes and psychological processes. The Need for Classification Even though labelling people as mentally ill sometimes stops people from taking personal steps towards improvement, it can be advantageous. We must be able to classify specific disorders reliably and accurately in order to be able to treat them. Prevalence of Psychological Disorders - Roughly 11% of Canadians suffer from a psychological disorder or substance-abuse problem. - Substance use disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders are the most common. Clinical versus Actuarial Diagnosis clinical judgements: Diagnoses of psychological disorders or predictions of future behaviour based largely on experts experience and knowledge. actuarial judgements: Diagnoses of psychological disorders or predictions of future behaviour based on numerical formulas derived from analyses of prior outcomes. - Actuarial judgements are superior; their reliability is higher. (They always produce the same judgement for a particular set of data...13% increase in accuracy when actuarial methods are used! www.notesolution.com
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