Textbook Notes (381,007)
CA (168,313)
UTSC (19,303)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 10 Notes
language: flexible systems that use symbols to express many meanings
communication does not only make use of language (mating signals)
psycholinguists (study of verbal behavior) are more concerned with human cognition
and social behavior than language
language aids our memory and thinking process through things like note taking
PERCEPTION OF SPEECH
a series of sounds in a punctuated stream with changes in pitch and emphasis on
certain words
not individual words- must identify words and meaning in a stream
we can recognize individuals from the sounds of their speech- the auditory system
detects the patterns underlying speech and not just the sounds produced from it
Belin, Zatorre, Ahad: temporal lobe in auditory cortex had a large difference in
response when listening to human vocalizations and natural sounds
Analyzing details in speech--> left hemisphere
phonemes: smallest unit of SOUNDS (pin--> /p/ /i/ /n/)
distinguishing phonemes: voice-onset time is the delay between the sound of a
constant and the vibration of vocal cords (helps us tell the difference between similar
sounding constants and words junctions)
morphemes: smallest units of MEANING (fast is a free stranding morpheme and has
meaning on its own while est is a bound morpheme and does not have meaning on its
own)
the auditory system does not just recognize individual phonemes, it recognizes
speech sounds in chunks (perception of phoneme is determined by the sound that
follows it/the larger word)
morphemes are established by learning and experience
electrical signal released when morpheme is heard- N100 response
meaning is also established with the help of surroundings and other contexts
MEANING OF SPEECH
Syntax (to put together)
following the rules of english grammar- proper grouping and organization of words
syntax is automatic not conscious
when a syntax is more complex, our brains become more active
learning syntax involves implicit (doing) and explicit (knowing/explaining) memory but
we do not need explicit memory to communicate with others because talking about the
meanings of words and recognizing their application is not necessary in
communicating
Syntactical Cues
word order: may tell us what is occurring in the sentence
word class: we do not need knowledge of word class to use language
nouns, verbs, etc
www.notesolution.com
function words: determiners, quantifiers, and prepositions
express relationship between content words
the, a, to, but, etc
content words: express meaning
nouns, verbs, pronouns, adverbs
affixes: sounds added to the end (suffix) or the beginning (prefix) of a word to alter
their meaning
semantics: word meanings in a particular context and sentence with implications of
grammatical rules
prosody: use of stress, rhythm, and changes in pitch
easier to accomplish verbally, rather than in print (using commas, etc)
Relation Between Semantics and Syntax
deep structure: core meaning of what is intended to be said
surface structure: the form the sentence takes using words
conduction aphasia (difficulty repeating words but can understand them): have
comprehension of the deep structure but not the surface structure
!slip of the tongue!: errors in translation from deep to surface structure
Obama and Osama
speech comprehension is aided by our general knowledge and experience for the
world giving certain sentences certain meanings
BRAIN MECHANISMS
cerebral cortex: speech perception, comprehension, production
speech production: frontal lobe
Broca"s aphasia: slow, non-fluent speech
damage to motor association cortex in left frontal lobe (but damage must extend to
surrounding regions of frontal lobe and subcortical white matter regions)
difficulty with speech but can say more than just one word
have something to say but cannot really express their thoughts
low activity in the left frontal lobe
Broca"s area has been suggested to contain motor memories since speaking involves
sophisticated motor control (cannot articulate because they cannot sequence the
muscles responsible for it)
-processes musical sequences and perceives and perceives the rhythm and imagery
of motion
Agrammatism (accompanies broca!s aphasia): inability to produce or comprehend
speech that contains complex syntactical rules (damage to lower left frontal lobe)
function words and auxiliaries are not used
caused by damage to the frontal cortex in front of the motor centre
broca"s aphasia also affects speech comprehension and can be confused with
decoding sentence meaning through things such as word order
function words are disregarded and people just look at the meaning of content words
in the sentence which may confuse them in their comprehension
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 10 Notes language: exible systems that use symbols to express many meanings communication does not only make use of language (mating signals) psycholinguists (study of verbal behavior) are more concerned with human cognition and social behavior than language language aids our memory and thinking process through things like note taking PERCEPTION OF SPEECH a series of sounds in a punctuated stream with changes in pitch and emphasis on certain words not individual words- must identify words and meaning in a stream we can recognize individuals from the sounds of their speech- the auditory system detects the patterns underlying speech and not just the sounds produced from it Belin, Zatorre, Ahad: temporal lobe in auditory cortex had a large difference in response when listening to human vocalizations and natural sounds Analyzing details in speech--> left hemisphere phonemes: smallest unit of SOUNDS (pin--> p i n) distinguishing phonemes: voice-onset time is the delay between the sound of a constant and the vibration of vocal cords (helps us tell the difference between similar sounding constants and words junctions) morphemes: smallest units of MEANING (fast is a free stranding morpheme and has meaning on its own while est is a bound morpheme and does not have meaning on its own) the auditory system does not just recognize individual phonemes, it recognizes speech sounds in chunks (perception of phoneme is determined by the sound that follows itthe larger word) morphemes are established by learning and experience electrical signal released when morpheme is heard- N100 response meaning is also established with the help of surroundings and other contexts MEANING OF SPEECH Syntax (to put together) following the rules of english grammar- proper grouping and organization of words syntax is automatic not conscious when a syntax is more complex, our brains become more active learning syntax involves implicit (doing) and explicit (knowingexplaining) memory but we do not need explicit memory to communicate with others because talking about the meanings of words and recognizing their application is not necessary in communicating Syntactical Cues word order: may tell us what is occurring in the sentence word class: we do not need knowledge of word class to use language nouns, verbs, etc www.notesolution.com
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