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Chapter 14-18

chapter 14-18+ lecture notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Final Exam Notes Chapter 14 Personality
Psychodynamic Approach
-Sigmund Freud first to say what we do is often irrational and that the reasons for our
behavior are seldom conscious.
-Began association with prominent physician Josef Breuer. They published a seminal book
Studies on Hysteria and one of the cases that cited in it was of Anna O. who suffered from
a staggering number of symptoms; loss of speech, disturbance in vision, headaches,
paralysis and loss of feeling in right arm.
-Under hypnosis she could tell when her symptoms began.
-They began when she was unable to express a strongly felt emotion. While under hypnosis,
she experienced these emotions again, and the experience gave her a relief from her
symptoms. It was as if the emotions had been bottled up and relieving the original
experiences had uncorked them. This relief of energy was called catharsis which
presumably eliminated her symptoms. However Ellenberger (1972) discovered through
hospital results that Anna O. wasnt in fact cured and she continued to take morphine for
the distress caused by the disorders Breuer had supposedly cured.
-Freud concluded from his observations that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual
drives, which when activated supply psychic energy. This energy is aversive because the
nervous system seeks a state of quiet equilibrium. According to Freud, if something
prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of a drive from being discharged,
psychological disturbance will result. He believed instinctual drives are triggered by the
events in a persons life. Traumatic events can seriously threaten the desired state of
psychic energy equilibrium. A person tends to try to deny or hide his strong emotional
reaction rather than express it.
-If we dont express our strong emotions and suppress the psychic energy that fuels them,
then the emotions may be expressed neurotically excessive anxiety. The individual wont
be able to recall his extreme emotional reactions because they’ll be embedded in the
unconscious, the inaccessible part of the mind.
-Unconscious emotions still exert control over conscious thoughts and actions.
-Freud also believed that the mind actively prevents unconscious memories of traumatic
events from reaching conscious awareness. The mind represses the memories of traumatic
events most of which are potentially anxiety provoking, from being consciously discovered.
-He used the idea of an iceberg as a metaphor to describe the mind; only the tip is visible
www.notesolution.com
above water, the much larger and more important part is submerged. (See figure 14.8 on
page 453. Iceberg example)
-Mind consists of:
Unconscious the inaccessible part of the mind which includes mental events that were
not aware of.
Conscious mental events that were aware of.
Preconscious mental events that becomes conscious through effort.
-He divided the mind into three structures:
1.id: the unconscious reservoir of libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and
psychic processes.
2.Libido: An insistent, instinctual force thats unresponsive to the demands of reality;
the primary source of motivation.
3.Pleasure Principle: the rule that the id obeys. Obtains immediate gratification in
whatever form it may take.
Ego: general manager of personality, making decisions regarding the pleasures that will be
pursued at the ids demand, the persons safety requirements, and the moral dictates of the
superego that will be followed. It controls and integrates behavior.
Reality Principle: The tendency to satisfy the ids demands realistically, which almost
always involves compromising the demands of the id and superego. The ability to delay
gratification of a drive until an appropriate goal is located.
Superego: The repository of an individuals moral values, divided into the conscious-the
internalization of a societys rules and regulations-and the ego ideal-the internalizations of
ones goal. (subdivided into the conscience and the ego-ideal).
Conscious: the internalization of the rules and restrictions of society; it determines which
behaviors are permissible and punishes wrongdoing with feelings of guilt.
Ego ideal: the internalization of what a person would like to be-goals and ambitions.
-Freud believed that the mind is full of conflicts. There are two primary drives:
1. Sexual instinctual drive
2. Aggressive instinctual drive
www.notesolution.com
Internalized prohibitions: rules of behavior learned in childhood that protects the person
from the guilt he would feel if the instinctual drives were allowed to express themselves.
-The result of the conflict is a compromise between the demands of the id and the
suppressive effects of the superego. (e.g) the Freudian slips; dreams, artistic creations and
the slips of tongue.
the interpretations of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities
of the mind. Freud believed dreams were motivated by repressed wishes and urges.
Manifest content: apparent storyline of a dream.
Latent content: hidden message of a dream, produced by the unconsciousness.
Free association: a method of Freudian analysis in which an individual is asked to relax,
clear his mind of current thoughts, and then report all thoughts, images, perceptions, and
feelings that comes into mind.
Defence mechanisms: mental systems that become active whenever the ids unconscious
instinctual drives of the ids come into conflict with internalized prohibitions of the
superego. (6 D.Ms)
1.Repressionthe mental force responsible for actively keeping potentially
threatening or anxiety provoking memories from being consciously discovered. Most
powerful.
2.Reaction FormationInvolves behaving in a way that is the opposite of how one
really feels because the true feelings produce anxiety.
3.ProjectionOnes unacceptable behaviors or thoughts are attributed to someone
else. (denying your negative feelings towards someone, but believing that that person
has negative feelings towards you).
4.Sublimationinvolves redirecting pleasure seeking or aggressive instincts toward
socially acceptable goals. (diverting energy from sex drive to produce work of art).
5.Rationalizationjustifies an unacceptable action with a more acceptable but false
excuse.
6.Conversion(aka Hysteria, Anna O.s problem).Converting an intrapsychic
conflict into a physical form, such as blindness, deafness, paralysis or numbness.
(avoiding someone by creating false symptoms to avoid a conflict).
-Freud stated personality development goes through several psychosexual stages- involves
www.notesolution.com

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Final Exam Notes Chapter 14 Personality Psychodynamic Approach -Sigmund Freud first to say what we do is often irrational and that the reasons for our behavior are seldom conscious. -Began association with prominent physician Josef Breuer. They published a seminal book Studies on Hysteria and one of the cases that cited in it was of Anna O. who suffered from a staggering number of symptoms; loss of speech, disturbance in vision, headaches, paralysis and loss of feeling in right arm. -Under hypnosis she could tell when her symptoms began. -They began when she was unable to express a strongly felt emotion. While under hypnosis, she experienced these emotions again, and the experience gave her a relief from her symptoms. It was as if the emotions had been bottled up and relieving the original experiences had uncorked them. This relief of energy was called catharsis which presumably eliminated her symptoms. However Ellenberger (1972) discovered through hospital results that Anna O. wasnt in fact cured and she continued to take morphine for the distress caused by the disorders Breuer had supposedly cured. -Freud concluded from his observations that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual drives, which when activated supply psychic energy. This energy is aversive because the nervous system seeks a state of quiet equilibrium. According to Freud, if something prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of a drive from being discharged, psychological disturbance will result. He believed instinctual drives are triggered by the events in a persons life. Traumatic events can seriously threaten the desired state of psychic energy equilibrium. A person tends to try to deny or hide his strong emotional reaction rather than express it. -If we dont express our strong emotions and suppress the psychic energy that fuels them, then the emotions may be expressed neurotically excessive anxiety. The individual wont be able to recall his extreme emotional reactions because theyll be embedded in the unconscious, the inaccessible part of the mind. -Unconscious emotions still exert control over conscious thoughts and actions. -Freud also believed that the mind actively prevents unconscious memories of traumatic events from reaching conscious awareness. The mind represses the memories of traumatic events most of which are potentially anxiety provoking, from being consciously discovered. -He used the idea of an iceberg as a metaphor to describe the mind; only the tip is visible www.notesolution.comabove water, the much larger and more important part is submerged. (See figure 14.8 on page 453. Iceberg example) -Mind consists of: Unconscious the inaccessible part of the mind which includes mental events that were not aware of. Conscious mental events that were aware of. Preconscious mental events that becomes conscious through effort. -He divided the mind into three structures: 1. id: the unconscious reservoir of libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes. 2. Libido: An insistent, instinctual force thats unresponsive to the demands of reality; the primary source of motivation. 3. Pleasure Principle: the rule that the id obeys. Obtains immediate gratification in whatever form it may take. Ego: general manager of personality, making decisions regarding the pleasures that will be pursued at the ids demand, the persons safety requirements, and the moral dictates of the superego that will be followed. It controls and integrates behavior. Reality Principle: The tendency to satisfy the ids demands realistically, which almost always involves compromising the demands of the id and superego. The ability to delay gratification of a drive until an appropriate goal is located. Superego: The repository of an individuals moral values, divided into the conscious-the internalization of a societys rules and regulations-and the ego ideal-the internalizations of ones goal. (subdivided into the conscience and the ego-ideal). Conscious: the internalization of the rules and restrictions of society; it determines which behaviors are permissible and punishes wrongdoing with feelings of guilt. Ego ideal: the internalization of what a person would like to be-goals and ambitions. -Freud believed that the mind is full of conflicts. There are two primary drives: 1. Sexual instinctual drive 2. Aggressive instinctual drive www.notesolution.comInternalized prohibitions: rules of behavior learned in childhood that protects the person from the guilt he would feel if the instinctual drives were allowed to express themselves. -The result of the conflict is a compromise between the demands of the id and the suppressive effects of the superego. (e.g) the Freudian slips; dreams, artistic creations and the slips of tongue. the interpretations of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind. Freud believed dreams were motivated by repressed wishes and urges. Manifest content: apparent storyline of a dream. Latent content: hidden message of a dream, produced by the unconsciousness. Free association: a method of Freudian analysis in which an individual is asked to relax, clear his mind of current thoughts, and then report all thoughts, images, perceptions, and feelings that comes into mind. Defence mechanisms: mental systems that become active whenever the ids unconscious instinctual drives of the ids come into conflict with internalized prohibitions of the superego. (6 D.Ms) 1. Repressionthe mental force responsible for actively keeping potentially threatening or anxiety provoking memories from being consciously discovered. Most powerful. 2. Reaction FormationInvolves behaving in a way that is the opposite of how one really feels because the true feelings produce anxiety. 3. ProjectionOnes unacceptable behaviors or thoughts are attributed to someone else. (denying your negative feelings towards someone, but believing that that person has negative feelings towards you). 4. Sublimationinvolves redirecting pleasure seeking or aggressive instincts toward socially acceptable goals. (diverting energy from sex drive to produce work of art). 5. Rationalizationjustifies an unacceptable action with a more acceptable but false excuse. 6. Conversion(aka Hysteria, Anna O.s problem).Converting an intrapsychic conflict into a physical form, such as blindness, deafness, paralysis or numbness. (avoiding someone by creating false symptoms to avoid a conflict). -Freud stated personality development goes through several psychosexual stages- involves www.notesolution.com
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