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CA (167,282)
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Psychology (9,983)
PSYA02H3 (979)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Textbook

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Psychology Chapter 14: Personality
Personality; a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations
and differentiates one person from another
The goal of psychologists who study personality is to discover the causes of individual
differences in behaviour
Research on human personality requires two kinds of effort: identifying personality
characteristics and determining the variables that produce and control them
We must be careful to avoid the nominal fallacy; the false belief that the causes of an event are
explained by simply naming and identifying them
-not the same as explaining it
Trait Theories of Personality
Personality traits; a set of personal characteristics that determine the different ways we act and
react in a variety of situations
Personality Types and Traits
Personality types; different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned
based on factors such as developmental experiences or physical characteristics
Idea is rejected that people can be assigned to discrete categories; generally conceive of
individual differences in personality as differences in degree, not king
-prefer to measure the degree to which an individual expresses a particular personality trait
Personality trait; an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of
behaviour in a variety of situations
Personality traits are not simply patterns of behaviour; they are factors that underlie these patterns
and are responsible for them
Once our personality traits are developed, they reside in our brains
Personality traits are carried in our brains
Identification of Personality Traits
ALLPORTS SEARCH FOR TRAITS
Allport; first psychologist to search systematically for a basic core of personality traits
www.notesolution.com
Identified all words in the dictionary relating to personality traits
Then identified those words that described only stable personality characteristics
-words that represented temporary states or evaluations were eliminated
The wealth of trait terms helped confirm his belief that a well-developed trait theory would have
value in understanding human functioning
-believed that traits were neuropsychological properties that led to behavioural consistency over
time and contexts by producing functional similarity in the way a given person interprets and
experiences events; people with a particular trait react similarly across situations because they
experience a unique sense of similarity across those situations that guides their feelings, thoughts
and behaviour
Cardinal traits; characterize a strong, unifying influence on a persons behaviour
Central traits; capture important characteristics of an individual
Secondary traits; characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of behaviour
CATTELL: SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTORS
Used the process of factor analysis to identify clusters of these traits that he believed in turn
represented underlying traits
Identified 16 personality factors; referred to them as source traits because they were the
cornerstones upon which personality was built
EYSENCK: THREE FACTORS
Also used factor analysis
Identified three important factors
-extroversion introversion
- neuroticism emotional stability
-psychoticism self-control
These factors are bipolar dimensions
Extroversion; the tendency to seek company of other people, to be spontaneous, and to engage in
conversation and other social behaviours with them
Introversion; the tendency to avoid the company of other people, to be inhibited and cautious,
shyness
Neuroticism; the tendency to be anxious, worried, and full of guilt
www.notesolution.com
Emotional stability; the tendency to be relaxed and at peace with oneself
Psychoticism; the tendency to be aggressive, egocentric, and anti-social
Self-control; the tendency to be kind, considerate, and obedient of laws and rules
Eysenck argued that the most important aspects of a person’s temperament are determined by the
combination of the three dimensions of extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism
Eysenck also emphasizes the biological nature of personality
Believes that the functioning of a neural system located in the brain stem produces different
levels of arousal of the cerebral cortex
Introverts have high levels of cortical excitation while extroverts have relatively low levels
-in order to maintain the optimum level arousal, the extrovert requires more external stimulation
than the introvert
THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL
Five-factor model; a theory stating that personality is composed of five primary dimensions;
neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. This theory was
developed using factor analyses of ratings of the words people use to describe personality
characteristics
These factors are measured by the NEO-PI-R
Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R); the instrument
used to measure the elements described in the five-factor model (neuroticism, extroversion,
openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness)
-consists of 240 items that can potentially used to describe the person being evaluated
Five factor can also be used to predict subjective well-being
Five factors may be due to heritability
Correlations in traits are higher within monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins
THE DARK TRIAD
A special cluster of traits may underlie socially offensive personalities
Machiavellianism; a trait characterized by skill at manipulating others socially
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Psychology Chapter 14: Personality Personality; a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another The goal of psychologists who study personality is to discover the causes of individual differences in behaviour Research on human personality requires two kinds of effort: identifying personality characteristics and determining the variables that produce and control them We must be careful to avoid the nominal fallacy; the false belief that the causes of an event are explained by simply naming and identifying them -not the same as explaining it Trait Theories of Personality Personality traits; a set of personal characteristics that determine the different ways we act and react in a variety of situations Personality Types and Traits Personality types; different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences or physical characteristics Idea is rejected that people can be assigned to discrete categories; generally conceive of individual differences in personality as differences in degree, not king -prefer to measure the degree to which an individual expresses a particular personality trait Personality trait; an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations Personality traits are not simply patterns of behaviour; they are factors that underlie these patterns and are responsible for them Once our personality traits are developed, they reside in our brains Personality traits are carried in our brains Identification of Personality Traits ALLPORTS SEARCH FOR TRAITS Allport; first psychologist to search systematically for a basic core of personality traits www.notesolution.com Identified all words in the dictionary relating to personality traits Then identified those words that described only stable personality characteristics -words that represented temporary states or evaluations were eliminated The wealth of trait terms helped confirm his belief that a well-developed trait theory would have value in understanding human functioning -believed that traits were neuropsychological properties that led to behavioural consistency over time and contexts by producing functional similarity in the way a given person interprets and experiences events; people with a particular trait react similarly across situations because they experience a unique sense of similarity across those situations that guides their feelings, thoughts and behaviour Cardinal traits; characterize a strong, unifying influence on a persons behaviour Central traits; capture important characteristics of an individual Secondary traits; characteristics that have minor influence on consistency of behaviour CATTELL: SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTORS Used the process of factor analysis to identify clusters of these traits that he believed in turn represented underlying traits Identified 16 personality factors; referred to them as source traits because they were the cornerstones upon which personality was built EYSENCK: THREE FACTORS Also used factor analysis Identified three important factors -extroversion introversion - neuroticism emotional stability -psychoticism self-control These factors are bipolar dimensions Extroversion; the tendency to seek company of other people, to be spontaneous, and to engage in conversation and other social behaviours with them Introversion; the tendency to avoid the company of other people, to be inhibited and cautious, shyness Neuroticism; the tendency to be anxious, worried, and full of guilt www.notesolution.com
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