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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Textbook

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 16 Lifestyles, Stress,
and Health
Cultural Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and Consequences
cultural evolution: a cultures adaptive change to recurrent environmental
pressures
odriven mainly by psychological forces
oa product of human intellect and physical capacity
lifestyle: the aggregate behavior of a person; the way in which a person leads
his/her life
ocultural evolution is the primary agent involved in shaping these
oeveryday processes are characteristic of a lifestyle; many decisions as well
cultural evolution gives us the choice on which lifestyle to lead, which culture to
follow
there are threats in the modern day world and a lifestyle that does not avoid these
threats may lead to ill-health
oTHUS; a chosen lifestyle is good but SOME PEOPLE choose bad lifestyles
we know that unhealthy lifestyles are bad for us but WHY do we maintain them?
onegative effects biologically, but the behaviours themselves can be acquired
and maintained by both biological + psychological factors
law of effect: behaviours that produce favorable consequences tend to be repeated,
and those that produce unfavorable consequences tend not to be repeated
ogood thing? yup! will be repeated
obad thing? yikes! dont repeat
BUT many unhealthy behaviours have reinforcing consequences in the short run
obut have damaging consequences in the long run
www.notesolution.com
oex/ teens that smoke receive immediate physical/psychological stimulation
from smoking and gain acceptance from peers
in the long run? lungggggg canccccerrrrrrr
Stress and Health
stress: a pattern of physiological, behavioural, emotional, and cognitive responses to
real or imagined stimuli that are perceived as blocking a goal or endangering or
otherwise threatening our well-being
oa product of natural selection
obehavioural adaption that helped our ancestors fight/flee from wild animals
and enemies
ochanges in environment bring forth stress
stressors: stimuli that are perceived as endangering ones well being
othings that inflict stress
The Biological Basis of Stress
physical response to stressors? governed by the autonomic nervous system which
is controlled by the hypothalamus
sense a stressor? hypothalamus sends signals to the autonomic nervous system and
to the pituitary gland both respond by stimulating body organs to change their
normal activities
o1) heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, blood flow is directed away from
extremities and toward the major organs
o2) breathing becomes deeper and faster and air passages dilate, which
permits more air to enter lungs
o3) digestion stops and perspiration increases
o4) adrenal gland secretes adrenaline which stimulates heart and other organs
each other the above prepare the body for a physical state of alertness and action
Selyes General Adaption Syndrome
www.notesolution.com
chronic exposure to severe stressors produce a sequence of three physiological stages:
alarm, resistance and exhaustion
^^ general adaption syndrome (GAS) ^^
alarm reaction:
oarousal of the autonomic nervous system and occur when the organism is
first confronted with a stressor
oan organisms resistance to the stressor drops drastically at first response
thus impairing normal physiological functioning
stage of resistance
oautonomic nervous system returns to normal functioning
oresistance to the stressor INCREASES then eventually goes ABOVE normal
levels
oorganisms adaption TO THE STRESSOR
stage of exhaustion
oorganism loses its ability to adapt, resistance goes down to below-normal
levels
this leaves organism susceptible to illness/disease
flight or fight response: the physiological reactions that prepare us for the
strenuous efforts required by fighting or running away
oafter we fight/flight the risk/threat is gone and we return to homeostasis
when stress is continuous as opposed to episodic, we produce a continued stress
response
Physiological Mechanisms Involved in Stress
adrenaline releases the stored form of glucose that is present in the muscles, thus
providing energy for strenuous exercise
cortisol: the steroid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland upon stress
cortisol = a glucocorticoid: influences the metabolism of glucose
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 16 Lifestyles, Stress, and Health Cultural Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and Consequences cultural evolution: a cultures adaptive change to recurrent environmental pressures o driven mainly by psychological forces o a product of human intellect and physical capacity lifestyle: the aggregate behavior of a person; the way in which a person leads hisher life o cultural evolution is the primary agent involved in shaping these o everyday processes are characteristic of a lifestyle; many decisions as well cultural evolution gives us the choice on which lifestyle to lead, which culture to follow there are threats in the modern day world and a lifestyle that does not avoid these threats may lead to ill-health o THUS; a chosen lifestyle is good but SOME PEOPLE choose bad lifestyles we know that unhealthy lifestyles are bad for us but WHY do we maintain them? o negative effects biologically, but the behaviours themselves can be acquired and maintained by both biological + psychological factors law of effect: behaviours that produce favorable consequences tend to be repeated, and those that produce unfavorable consequences tend not to be repeated o good thing? yup! will be repeated o bad thing? yikes! dont repeat BUT many unhealthy behaviours have reinforcing consequences in the short run o but have damaging consequences in the long run www.notesolution.com
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