Textbook Notes (378,371)
CA (167,127)
UTSC (19,207)
Psychology (9,979)
PSYA02H3 (978)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Textbook

21 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 17 The Nature and
Causes of Psychological
Disorders
etiology: causes or origins of diseases
Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders
What is Abnormal?
abnormal refers to any departure from the norm
oex/ Einstein = abnormal
BUT the term has taken on a negative connotation as if abnormal is bad
distinction between normal and abnormal behaviour = subjective
psychological disorder = whether ones behaviour is maladaptive
oif someone does something that is maladaptive, doesnt mean they
have a disorder
oall is very subjective
Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders
caused by a interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors
some cases genetic component is SO strong, will have psychological
disorder regardless of environment
several perspectives each puts emphasis on these factors
The Psychodynamic Perspective
psychological disorders originate in intra-psychic conflict produced by the
three components of the mind: the id, ego, and superego
oconflicts between the id, ego, and superego that lead to psychological
disorders
www.notesolution.com
minds defense mechanism cannot produce a resolution that is adequate for
all three
odefense mechanisms themselves begin distorting reality
extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behavior, depression,
distorted perceptions and patterns of thinking
The Medical Perspective
illness of the mind
Hippocrates = black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm emotional
problems
asylums were established to confine those with psychological disorders
ocondition of them were POOR and may have worsened their condition
18th/19th century quality and compassion improved
psychological matters are based on specific abnormalities of the brain and
nervous system that they should be approached for treatment in the same
way as physical illnesses
The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective
psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behaviour patterns that can be
best understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of
those factors
caused by the persons interaction with his/her environment
oNOT spontaneously within the person
ex/ persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief of
tension it provides
treatment??? replace the maladaptive thoughts with more adaptive ones
The Humanistic Perspective
psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must EARN the
positive regard of others
oproper and natural personality development occurs when people
experience unconditional positive regard
www.notesolution.com
THUS, they become overly sensitive to the demands and criticisms of others
odefine their personal VALUE primarily in terms of others reactions to
them
lack confidence in their abilities and feel as though they have no stable,
internal value as persons
DEPRESSION!!!!!
The Sociocultural Perspective
cultural variables influence the nature and extent to which people interpret
their own behaviours as normal/abnormal
culture bound syndromes psychological disorders that exist and occur in certain
cultures
The Biopsychosocial Perspective
diathesis-stress model: accounts for psychological disorders based on the idea that
psychological disorders develop when a person possesses a predisposition for a
disorder and faces stressors that exceed his/her abilities to cope with them
othe genes that are involved are not necessarily specific to particular disorders
but may constitute a more general predisposition
othe genes dont specifically CAUSE the psychological disorder
rather it places a predisposition on the person to attain one
may be predisposed to a psychological condition but not have
encountered the stressors thatll trigger its development
biopsychosocial perspective: a view that the causes of psychological disorders can
best be understood in terms of the interaction of biological, psychological, and social
factors
The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme
Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders
omedical specialty devoted to the treatment of psychological disorders
oa widely used manual for classifying psychological disorders
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders etiology: causes or origins of diseases Classification and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal? abnormal refers to any departure from the norm o ex Einstein = abnormal BUT the term has taken on a negative connotation as if abnormal is bad distinction between normal and abnormal behaviour = subjective psychological disorder = whether ones behaviour is maladaptive o if someone does something that is maladaptive, doesnt mean they have a disorder o all is very subjective Perspectives on the Causes of Psychological Disorders caused by a interaction of hereditary, cognitive, and environmental factors some cases genetic component is SO strong, will have psychological disorder regardless of environment several perspectives each puts emphasis on these factors The Psychodynamic Perspective psychological disorders originate in intra-psychic conflict produced by the three components of the mind: the id, ego, and superego o conflicts between the id, ego, and superego that lead to psychological disorders www.notesolution.com minds defense mechanism cannot produce a resolution that is adequate for all three o defense mechanisms themselves begin distorting reality extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts, and compulsive behavior, depression, distorted perceptions and patterns of thinking The Medical Perspective illness of the mind Hippocrates = black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm emotional problems asylums were established to confine those with psychological disorders o condition of them were POOR and may have worsened their condition th th 18 19 century quality and compassion improved psychological matters are based on specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system that they should be approached for treatment in the same way as physical illnesses The Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective psychological disorders are learned maladaptive behaviour patterns that can be best understood by focusing on environmental factors and a persons perception of those factors caused by the persons interaction with hisher environment o NOT spontaneously within the person ex persons excessive use of alcohol may be reinforced by the relief of tension it provides treatment??? replace the maladaptive thoughts with more adaptive ones The Humanistic Perspective psychological disorders arise when people perceive that they must EARN the positive regard of others o proper and natural personality development occurs when people experience unconditional positive regard www.notesolution.com
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