Textbook Notes (381,007)
CA (168,313)
UTSC (19,303)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 10

PSYA02 chapter 10 notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 10 Language
Psycholinguistics: branch of psychology devoted to the study o verbal behavior
Speech and Comprehension
Perception of Speech
Left hemisphere of brain plays larger role when analyzing detailed information of
speech
Analysis of speech usually begins with its elements/ phonemes
oPhonemes: elements of speech smallest units of sound that allow us to
distinguish the meaning of a spoken word; minimum unit of sound that
conveys meaning in a particular language
e.g. pin has 3 phonemes : p/i/n
Detectable distinction in phonemes
oVoice-onset Time: delay between initial sound of a consonant (puffing the
sound of the phoneme /p/) and the onset f vibration of the vocal cords
oVoicing is the vibration of vocal cords
Phonemic distinction starts with auditory processes of sensory differences (in both
hemispheres)
Ganong found that perception of phonemes is affected by the sounds that follow it.
Morpheme: combined phonemes; smallest unit of meaning in language
oFree morpheme part of word can have its own meaning
oBound morpheme cant stand on its own, must be attached to other
morphemes to have a meaning
Larger units of speech are established by learning and experience
Context affects perception of words through top-down processing as well as word
perception
Understanding the Meaning of Speech
Syntax (grammar)
www.notesolution.com
Syntactical rules: grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words
to form phrases, clauses, and sentences
oTo put together
oUnderstanding of syntax is automatic
oSyntactical rules are learned implicitly (cant be described)
oLearning syntax and word meaning seems to involve certain memories
Word order the A Xs the B (A = agent, B = object, X = thing being done)
oWho does what to whom
Word class grammatical categories (nouns, verbs, pronoun, adjective)
Words are either function words or content words
Function Words: includes determiners, quantifiers,, prepositions, and words in
similar categories (a, the, to some, and, but, when, and so on)
oImportant in specifying grammatical structure
Content Words: include nouns, verbs, and most adjectives and adverbs: apple, rug,
went, caught, heavy, mysterious, thoroughly, sadly
Content words express meaning; function words express relationship between
content words (important in syntactical cues)
Affixes: sounds that we add to the beginning (prefixes) or end (suffixes) of words to
alter their grammatical function
Word meanings (semantics): provide important cues to the syntax of a sentence
oMeanings, and study of meanings represented by words
Prosody: use of stress, rhythm, and changes in pitch that accompany speech
oCan emphasize the syntax of a word or group of words or even serve as the
primary source of syntactic information
Deep Structure: newly formed sentences are represented in the brain in terms of
their meaning
oRepresents the kernel of what the person intended to say
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 10 Language Psycholinguistics: branch of psychology devoted to the study o verbal behavior Speech and Comprehension Perception of Speech Left hemisphere of brain plays larger role when analyzing detailed information of speech Analysis of speech usually begins with its elements phonemes o Phonemes: elements of speech smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word; minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language e.g. pin has 3 phonemes : pin Detectable distinction in phonemes o Voice-onset Time: delay between initial sound of a consonant (puffing the sound of the phoneme p) and the onset f vibration of the vocal cords o Voicing is the vibration of vocal cords Phonemic distinction starts with auditory processes of sensory differences (in both hemispheres) Ganong found that perception of phonemes is affected by the sounds that follow it. Morpheme: combined phonemes; smallest unit of meaning in language o Free morpheme part of word can have its own meaning o Bound morpheme cant stand on its own, must be attached to other morphemes to have a meaning Larger units of speech are established by learning and experience Context affects perception of words through top-down processing as well as word perception Understanding the Meaning of Speech Syntax (grammar) www.notesolution.com
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