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Chapter 11

PSYA02 chapter 11 notes

Course Code
John Bassili

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Chapter 11 Intelligence and Thinking
Intelligence: the general term used to refer to a persons ability to learn and
remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the
information to their own behavior in an adaptive way
Three main approaches when studying intelligence: differential, developmental, and
information processing
Differential approach: favors the development of tests that identity and measure
individual differences in peoples abilities to solve problems, particularly those that
use skills important I the classroom
oApproach to study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that
identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and
abilities to solve problems
Developmental approach: studies the ways in which children learn to perceive,
manipulate, and think about the world
Information processing approach: focuses on the types of skills people use to
think and to solve various types of problems
Theories of Intelligence
Intelligence tests yield a single number (IQ), however this doesnt mean that there is
only one strand of intelligence
oThose measuring athletic ability would make people run, jump, weight lift,
etc; they would be measuring AQ (athletic quotient)
Three theories of intelligence: Spearmans two-factor theory, information processing
theory, and neuropsychological theory
Spearmans two-factor theory
oCharles Spearman a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is
determined by two factors:
G factor: factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual
tasks; includes apprehension of experience, eduction (process of
drawing, or bringing out- of figuring out from given facts) or relations,
and eduction of correlates

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The general factor; comprising three qualitative principles of
Apprehension of experience: refers to peoples ability to
perceive and understand what they experience
Eduction of relations: refers to the ability to perceive the
relation between two words (lawyer and client)
Eduction of correlates: refers to the ability to apply a rule
inferred from one case to a similar case (person whom a doctor
works for is obviously a patient)
S factor: factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task/ test
Factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups
of tests
oCommon factors in these tests would be particular abilities that affect
peoples performance on more than one test
oDetermines which sets of tests forms a group
If each persons score on several intelligence tests correlate well with
one another, the tests or subjects measure the same factor
oFactor loadings: express the degree to which a particular test is related to a
particular factor
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS
Louis Thurstone extracted 7 factors when performing a factor analysis
oVerbal comprehension
oVerbal fluency
oSpatial visualization
oPerceptual speed

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Catell and Horn
oSecond-order factor
Fluid intelligence ( gf ); crystallized intelligence ( gc )
oFluid intelligence: relatively culture-free tasks such as those that measure
the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a
repeating series of items
Closely related to a persons native capacity for intellectual
performance;; represents a potential ability to learn and solve
oCrystallized intelligence: tasks that require people to have acquired
information from their culture, such as vocabulary and the kind of
information learned in schools
What a person has accomplished through the use of his or her fluid
intelligence- what he or she has learned (Catell)
oHorn; Both factors are learned but are also based to a degree on heredity. Gf
is based on casual learning. Gc is based on cultural, school learning
oCatell; Gc depends on Gf . fluid intelligence supplies the native ability,
whereas experience with language and exposure to books, school, and other
learning opportunities develop crystallized intelligence
Information Processing Theory of Intelligence
oRobert Steinberg degree of success that people achieve in life is
strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze and
manage their unique combinations of strengths and weaknesses
oDevised a triarchic (ruled by 3) theory of intelligence that derives
from the information processing approach used by many cognitive
oThe three parts of the theory deal with three aspects of intelligence
Analytic, creative and practical
These three contribute to make successful intelligence
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