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PSYA02H3 (984)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 14

PSYA02 chapter 14 notes part 2

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 14 Personality
The Psychodynamic Approach
Psychodynamic: a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a
state of conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience
The Development of Freuds Theory
Published a seminal book with Josef Breuer Studies on Hysteria
oAnna O. suffered from many symptoms including loss of speech, disturbances
in vision, headaches, and paralysis and loss of feeling in her right arm
oAnna was asked to think about the time when her symptoms had started
Started when she was unable to express a strongly felt emotion
While under hypnosis, she experienced these emotions which gave her
relief from her symptoms
Presumed that the release of emotions eliminated her symptoms
This wasnt true
Freud concluded that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual drives, which,
when activated, supply psychic energy’
oThis energy is aversive because the nervous system seeks a state of quiet
equilibrium
oIf something prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of a drive from
being discharged, psychological disturbances will result
Unconscious: inaccessible part of the mind
oStill exert control over conscious thoughts and actions
The mind represses the memories of traumatic events, most of which are potentially
anxiety-provoking, from being consciously discovered
oIceberg metaphor
oOnly the tip is visible above water, the much larger and more important part
of it is submerged
www.notesolution.com
Structures of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego
The mind consists of unconscious, preconscious, and conscious elements
Unconscious includes mental events of which we are not aware
Conscious entails mental events of which we are aware
Preconscious involves mental events that may become conscious through effort
Id: the unconscious reservoir of libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and
psychic processes
oOperations are completely unconscious
Libido: an insistent, instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality;
the primary source of motivation
Pleasure principle: the rule that the id obeys: obtain immediate gratification,
whatever form it may take
For Freud, the id was a source of unrestrained, uncivilized, and ultimately harmful
behavior
Ego: serves as the general manager of personality, making decisions regarding the
pleasures that will be pursued at the ids demand, the persons safety requirements,
and the moral dictates of the superego that will be followed
oThinking, planning and protective self; controls and integrates behavior
Reality principle: tendency to satisfy the ids demands realistically, which almost
always involves compromising the demands of the id and superego
oAbility to delay gratification of a drive until an appropriate goal is located
oUses self defense mechanisms
Superego: repository of an individuals moral values, divided into the conscience
the internalization of a societys rules and regulations; and the ego-ideal the
internalization of ones goals
Conscience: the internalization of the rules and restrictions of society; it
determines which behaviors are permissible and punishes wrongdoing with feelings
of guilt
www.notesolution.com
Ego-ideal: internalization of what a person would like to be his or her goals and
ambitions
Primary drives sexual instinctual and aggressive instinctual
Internalized prohibitions rules of behavior learned in childhood that protect the
person from the guilt he or she would feel if the instinctual drives were allowed to
express themselves
Manifest content: (of a dream) the apparent storyline of a dream; disguised version
of its latent content
Latent content: the hidden message of a dream, produced by the unconscious
oUsually be related to unexpressed wishes generated by instinctual drives
Free association: a method of Freudian analysis in which an individual is asked to
relax, clear his or her mind of current thoughts, and then report all thoughts,
images, perceptions, and feelings that come to mind
Defense Mechanisms
The ego contains defense mechanisms mental systems that become active
whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with
internalized prohibitions of the superego
Repression: mental force responsible for actively keeping potentially threatening or
anxiety-provoking memories from being consciously discovered
Reaction formation: involves replacing an anxiety-provoking idea with its opposite
oInvolves behaving in a way that is the opposite of how one really feels because
the true feelings produce anxiety
Projection: ones unacceptable behaviors or thoughts are attributed to someone else
oDenying ones own unacceptable id-based desires and finding evidence of
these desires in others behavior
Sublimation: involves redirecting pleasure-seeking or aggressive instincts toward
socially acceptable goals
Rationalization: justifies an unacceptable action with a more acceptable, but false,
excuse
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14 Personality The Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic: a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience The Development of Freuds Theory Published a seminal book with Josef Breuer Studies on Hysteria o Anna O. suffered from many symptoms including loss of speech, disturbances in vision, headaches, and paralysis and loss of feeling in her right arm o Anna was asked to think about the time when her symptoms had started Started when she was unable to express a strongly felt emotion While under hypnosis, she experienced these emotions which gave her relief from her symptoms Presumed that the release of emotions eliminated her symptoms This wasnt true Freud concluded that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual drives, which, when activated, supply psychic energy o This energy is aversive because the nervous system seeks a state of quiet equilibrium o If something prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of a drive from being discharged, psychological disturbances will result Unconscious: inaccessible part of the mind o Still exert control over conscious thoughts and actions The mind represses the memories of traumatic events, most of which are potentially anxiety-provoking, from being consciously discovered o Iceberg metaphor o Only the tip is visible above water, the much larger and more important part of it is submerged www.notesolution.com
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