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Chapter 16

PSYA02 chapter 16 notes

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Chapter 16 Lifestyle, Stress, and Health
Cultural Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and Consequences
Cultural evolution: the adaptive change of a culture to recurrent environmental
pressures
oDriven mainly by psychological factors
oProduct of human intellect and physical capacity
Lifestyle: the aggregate behavior of a person; the way in which a person leads his or
her life
Law of effect behaviors that produce favorable consequences tend to be repeated,
and those that produce unfavorable consequences tend not to be repeated
Stress and Health
Stress: a pattern of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stimuli
(real or imagined) that are perceived as endangering ones well-being/ blocking a
goal
Stressors: stimuli that are perceived as endangering ones well-being
The Biological Basis of Stress
Stress is a biological response that is experienced as an emotion
When sensing a stressor
oHeart rate increases, blood pressure rises, blood vessels constrict, blood sugar
levels rise, and blood flow is directed away from extremities and toward major
organs
oBreathing becomes deeper and faster and air passages dilate, which permits
more air to enter the lungs
oDigestion stops and perspiration increases
oThe adrenal glands secrete adrenaline which stimulates the heart and other
organs
Selyes General Adaption Syndrome
www.notesolution.com
oThe model proposed by Selye to describe the bodys adaptation to chronic
exposure to severe stressors. The body passes through an orderly sequence of
three physiological stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
oResponses in alarm reaction involve arousal of the autonomic nervous
system and occur when the organism is first confronted with a stressor
oStage of resistance autonomic nervous system returns to normal
functioning; resistance to stressor increases and eventually plateaus at above-
normal levels
oStage of exhaustion organism loses its ability to adapt, and resistance
plummets to below-normal levels, leaving the organism susceptible to illness
and even death
oFight-or-flight response: physiological reactions that help ready us to fight
or to flee a dangerous situation
Physiological Mechanisms Involved in Stress
oEmotions consist of behavioral, autonomic, and hormonal responses
oStress-related hormones: adrenaline (epinephrine), norepinephrine, and
cortisol
oGlucocorticoid: a chemical, such as cortisol, that influences the metabolism
of glucose, the main energy source of the body
oMost harmful effects of stress are caused by the prolonged secretions of
glucocorticoids
oLong-term effects include increased blood pressure, damage to muscle tissue,
one form of diabetes, infertility, stunted growth, inhibition of the
inflammatory responses, and suppression of the immune system
Cognitive Appraisal and Stress
Cognitive appraisal: ones perception of a stressful situation
oTwo staged process
Evaluate the threat: we attempt to judge the seriousness of the
perceived threat posed by the stressor
If we decide the threat is real, we go to the next stage
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 16 Lifestyle, Stress, and Health Cultural Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and Consequences Cultural evolution: the adaptive change of a culture to recurrent environmental pressures o Driven mainly by psychological factors o Product of human intellect and physical capacity Lifestyle: the aggregate behavior of a person; the way in which a person leads his or her life Law of effect behaviors that produce favorable consequences tend to be repeated, and those that produce unfavorable consequences tend not to be repeated Stress and Health Stress: a pattern of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses to stimuli (real or imagined) that are perceived as endangering ones well-being blocking a goal Stressors: stimuli that are perceived as endangering ones well-being The Biological Basis of Stress Stress is a biological response that is experienced as an emotion When sensing a stressor o Heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, blood vessels constrict, blood sugar levels rise, and blood flow is directed away from extremities and toward major organs o Breathing becomes deeper and faster and air passages dilate, which permits more air to enter the lungs o Digestion stops and perspiration increases o The adrenal glands secrete adrenaline which stimulates the heart and other organs Selyes General Adaption Syndrome www.notesolution.com
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