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Chapter 18

PSYA02 chapter 18 notes

11 pages75 viewsSummer 2011

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Chapter
18

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Chapter 18 The Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Psychological Disorders
Early Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Trephining: a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living
person
oOpening was made to permit evil spirits to leave the victims head
oSome people survived
People thought to be unwilling hosts for evil spirits were subjected to curses or
insults designed to persuade the demons to leave
oIf this had no effect, exorcism was attempted to make the persons body an
unpleasant place for devils to reside
Other rituals included beatings, starving, near drowning, and the drinking of foul-
tasting concoctions
Some with severe problems were sent to asylums where they were chained and
wallowed in their own excrement
Others who displayed catatonic postures were displayed to the public for a fee
Philippe Pinel improved treatment by changing attitudes of patients
oUsed kind treatment orderliness and general calm
The Development of Psychotherapy
Anton Mesmer modern approach to therapy
oTheory of magnetic fluxes effect cures by manipulating iron rods and
bottles of chemicals
Hypnotized his patients and thereby alleviated some of their
symptoms
Mesmerism
Jean Martin Charcot studied therapeutic uses of hypnosis
Freud created practice of psychoanalysis
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Eclectic approach: a form of therapy in which the therapist uses whatever method
he or she feels will work best for a particular client at a particular time
Insight Therapies
Psychoanalysis and Modern Psychodynamic Approaches
Psychoanalysis: a form of therapy aimed at providing the client with insight into
his or her unconscious motivations and impulses
Purpose of therapy I to create a setting in which clues about the origins of
intrapsychic conflicts are most likely to be revealed by the client
One of the main goals of the psychoanalyst is to interpret the clues about the origins
of intrapsychic conflict given by the client
The clients main job is to provide the psychoanalyst with something to interpret:
description of their fears, anxieties, thoughts, or repressed memories
Psychoanalytic Techniques
oFree association: a psychoanalytic procedure in which the client is
encouraged to speak freely, without censoring possibly embarrassing or
socially unacceptable
oDream interpretation the evaluation of the underlying meaning of dream
content
oManifest manifest content of a dream is the actual images and events that
occur within the dream
oLatent latent content of a dream is the hidden meaning or significance of
the dream
oResistance: development during therapy in which the client becomes
defensive, unconsciously attempting to halt further insight by censoring his
or her true feelings
oTransference: the process by which a client begins to project powerful
attitudes and emotions onto the therapist
Freud thought of transference as a distraction from the real issue
Realized it was an important in the success of therapy
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oCountertransference: process by which the therapist projects his or her
emotions onto the client
Modern Psychodynamic Therapy
oPsychodynamic therapy: a variation o the Freudian approach to therapy in
which therapists search for unconscious conflicts and motivation but do not
adhere strictly to Freuds conception of psychoanalysis
oPsychodynamic therapists view the ego as playing a more active role in
influencing a persons thoughts and actions
oBrief psychodynamic therapy takes about 10-25 sessions to complete
Goal is to understand and improve the clients interpersonal skills
through the interpretation of transference processes
Humanistic Therapy
A form of therapy focusing on the persons unique potential or personal growth and
self-actualization
Client-Centered Therapy
oCarl Rogers
oForm of therapy in which the client is allowed to decide what to talk about
without strong direction and judgment from the therapist
oIncongruence: a discrepancy between a clients real and ideal selves
oReflection sensitive rephrasing or mirroring of the clients statements
oEmpathy ability to perceive the world from anothers viewpoint
oUnconditional positive regard: according to Rogers, the therapeutic
expression that a clients worth as a human being is not dependent on
anything that he or she does, says, feels, or thinks
oThe therapist unconditionally accepts the client and approves of him or her as
a person so that the client can come to understand that his or her feelings are
worthwhile and important
Gestalt Therapy
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