Chapter 18 the treatment of psychological disorders. T rephining: a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person: opening was made to permit evil spirits to leave the victim"s head, some people survived. other rituals included beatings, starving, near drowning, and the drinking of foul- tasting concoctions. some with severe problems were sent to asylums where they were chained and wallowed in their own excrement. others who displayed catatonic postures were displayed to the public for a fee. philippe pinel improved treatment by changing attitudes of patients: used kind treatment orderliness and general calm. anton mesmer modern approach to therapy: theory of magnetic fluxes effect cures by manipulating iron rods and bottles of chemicals. hypnotized his patients and thereby alleviated some of their symptoms. Jean martin charcot studied therapeutic uses of hypnosis.