Chapter 9.docx

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12 Dec 2012
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Chapter 9- Conducting Experiments
When doing research participants are gathered from a population
o Samples are gotten from population through Probability/No probability sampling
Gathering participants may be easy if you do the haphazard method; nothing wrong with it but
results are biased and cannot be generalized to public
To manipulate an independent variable one needs to construct and operational definition of the
variable
o Turning conceptual variables into a set of operations( specific instructions ,stimuli, etc)
Before anything is to be done, the researcher has to set the stage
o Which means provide participants with:
Consent info
Explain why the experiment is being done
There are many types of manipulation:
o Straightforward manipulations- easily doing this by giving the participant a written,
verbal, or visual material; The variables are manipulated with instructions and stimulus
presentations (examples- page 164 bottom and 165)
o Staged/Event Manipulations- used for one of 2 reasons:
To create a psychological state in the participant ( anger, frustration, etc)
Stimulate some situations that may occur in the real world
Confederates ( accomplices)- are people who participate in the experiments
acting as a participant but is actually there to manipulate or create a particular
social situation. Example is Asch experiments with the judgement of lines
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