# PSYB01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Standard Deviation, Pie Chart, Frequency Distribution

## Document Summary

Chapter 12 u(cid:374)dersta(cid:374)di(cid:374)g resear(cid:272)h results des(cid:272)ri(cid:271)i(cid:374)g varia(cid:271)les a(cid:374)d relatio(cid:374)ships a(cid:373)o(cid:374)g. Nominal scale = no numerical, quantitative properties ex, categories. Ordinal scale = ranking but the intervals between each rank are not equal. Interval scale = intervals are equal in size, no absolute zero that indicates the absence of a variable. Ratio scales = equal intervals and a true zero. Comparing group percentages = ex, 78% of males, and 60% of females. Example: ask boys and girls whether they like school. Like or dislike is nominal (categorical variable) Find that 60 boys and 70 girls like school. Perform statistical analysis to determine if difference between groups is significant. Correlating individual scores = ex, do people at the front learn better than back. Obtain pairs of observations from each subject (each individual has two scores; one from each of the variables) Ask whether variables go together in a systematic fashion by calculating pearson r correlation coefficient (determines strength and direction of relationship)