Chapter 13 understand research results: statistical inference. Infer whether the results that were obtained in a particular study would still occur if the study were repeated over and over again. researchers conduct studies from a single sample of research participants. they rarely conduct studies from entire populations; their findings are based ons ample data. Inferential statistics: used to determine whether we can, in fact, make statements that the results reflect what would happen if we were to conduct the experiment again and again with multiple samples. asking if whether we can infer that the difference in the sample means reflects a true difference in the population means. Inferential statistics allow us to arrive at such conclusions on the basis of sample data. Importance of ensuring that the groups are equivalent in every way except the independent variable manipulation. equivalence of groups are maintained by controlling all other variables or by randomization.