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Chapter 7: Survey Research Study Notes
A survey paired with a experimental research design can enhance understanding
An advantage is that people tend to be more truthful in surveys
Response set: tendency to respond from a certain perspective rather than provide answers
directly related to the question. This results in biased.
An example is social desirability:
-people respond based on what is usually acceptable
-to avoid this researcher can use lead-in statements (allows for participant to feel not
judged)
-also, when a researcher is honest and describes process they are more trustworthy and
answer the right way
Ways to decrease social desirability (Murder example):
1. Casual technique
2. Number card technique (person doesnt verbally admit)
3. Everyman technique
4. Other people technique
5. Kinsey technique : using always and never
Issues to avoid when making questions:
Double- Barred: discussing to different issues using and/or.
Loaded Questions: emotionally charge; written to lead people to answer in one way
Negative-wording: using NOT, this can confuse people and answer incorrect
Others: -hidden assumptions -leading
-vague/imprecise -jargon
Leniency bias: responses on the generous side
Steps to Develop a Questionnaire:
1. Choose variables (background, dependant, and independent)
2. Operationalize variables
3. Decide how data will be analyzed (measured)
4. Develop wording
5. Write proposed questions, edit
6. Pre-test; show others ask if the understand
7. Shorten List
8. Refine questions
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Document Summary

A survey paired with a experimental research design can enhance understanding. An advantage is that people tend to be more truthful in surveys. Response set: tendency to respond from a certain perspective rather than provide answers directly related to the question. People respond based on what is usually acceptable. To avoid this researcher can use lead-in statements (allows for participant to feel not judged) Also, when a researcher is honest and describes process they are more trustworthy and answer the right way. Ways to decrease social desirability (murder example): casual technique, number card technique (person doesn t verbally admit, everyman technique, other people technique, kinsey technique : using always and never. Double- barred: discussing to different issues using and/or. Loaded questions: emotionally charge; written to lead people to answer in one way. Negative-wording: using not, this can confuse people and answer incorrect.

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