Chapter 14 - Detailed & Easy to Learn

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Chapter 14 – Generalizing Results
Internal validity refers to the ability to infer that there is a causal relationship between variables
External validity is the extent to which the findings may be generalized
College students
oAre most often used in experiments
oTend to be very young and to possess the characteristics of late adolescence: a sense of
identity that is still developing, social and political attitudes that are in a state of flux, a
high need for peer approval, and unstable peer relationships
oThey are intelligent, have high cognitive skills, and know how to win approval from
oA great deal of research with animals relies solely on white rats because they’re hardy,
cheap, easy to rear and well adapted to laboratory existence
oVolunteers differ from non-volunteers
oVolunteers tend to be more highly educated, more in need of approval, and more social;
they also tend to have a higher socioeconomic status
oDifferent kinds of people volunteer for different kinds of experiments (they’re selective
about what they join or sign up for)
Gender considerations
oSometimes researchers use either males or females simply because the is convenient or
the procedures seem better suited to either males or females
oThe solution to gender bias is to simply be more away of possible gender differences and
include both males and females in research investigations
oIt is important to recognize the ways that males and females might differentially interpret
independent variable manipulation or questions asked in a questionnaire
oParticipants in one locale may differ from participants in another locale
Generalization as a statistical interaction
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