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Chapter 2

PSYB01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Falsifiability, Psycinfo, Serendipity

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Anna Nagy

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Chapter 2:
-research studies are attempts to test a hypothesis: a type of idea or question that
makes a statement about something that may be true
-the prediction is what the researcher thinks the out come of the experiment will
be . If the results are consistent with the hypothesis, it is supported, not proven.
-Important characteristic of all hypotheses in science is falsifiability- the data can
show that a hypothesis is false, if in fact it is false.
-respondents are the individuals who take part in survey research
-informants are the people who help researches understand the dynamics of
particular cultural and organizational settings
-sources of ideas: things that can be tested
1) Common Sense—testing this can be valuable because such notions don’t
always turn out to be correct or research may show that the real world is
much more complicated than what it seems
2) Observation of the world around us—people are likely to forget where is
something is placed when the location is considered a very unlikely place for
the object or the where the object is placed is considered to be highly
memorable; another thing to mention is serendipity which is the result of
accident or sheer luck
3) Theories—a theory consists of a systematic body of ideas about a particular
topic: theories organize and explain a variety of specific facts of behavior,
generate new knowledge . Theories are more general and abstract than
a. If multiple theories are equally successful at explaining the same
phenomenon, the scientific principle of parsimony dictates that the
least complex theory is most desirable because it is the easiest to
b. Theories are modified with new research.
4) Past Research—becoming familiar with a body of research on a topic is
perhaps the best way to generate ideas for new research
5) Practical Problems
6) The Nature of Journals
7) Psychological Abstracts—it is locating the brief summaries of articles in
psychology and related disciplines that were published each month by Psych
APA’s searchable site is Psycinfo
Another search resource is the Web of Science
Literature review: narrative techniques to combine data
Meta-analysis: use statistical techniques