The examiner or test administrator (the person giving the test) gives
the test to only one person at a time, the same way that
psychotherapists see only one person at a time.
oGroup Test: can be administered to more than one person at a time by a
single examiner. (E.g. an instructor gives everyone in the class a test at the
oOne can also categorize tests according to the type of behavior they measure
Ability tests contain items that can be scored in terms of speed,
accuracy, or both. ( related to capacity and potential)
Historically, experts have distinguished among achievement, aptitude,
and intelligence as different types of ability.
•Achievement: refers to previous learning
•Aptitude: refers to the potential for learning or acquiring a
•Intelligence: refers to a person’s general potential to solve
problems, adapt to changing circumstances, think abstractly,
and profit from experience.
oAll three are highly interrelated
•In view of the considerable overlap of achievement, aptitude,
and intelligence tests, all three concepts are encompassed by
Human Ability- behaviors that reflects either what a person
has learned or the person’s capacity to emit a specific behavior
•Personality Tests: are related to the overt and covert
dispositions of the individual (measures typical behavior)
oFor example, the tendency of a person to show a
particular behavior or response in a given situation.
•There are several types of personality tests:
•Structured Personality Tests: provide a statement, usually
of the “self-report” variety, and require the subject to choose
between two or more alternative responses such as “True” or
•Projective Personality Test: either the stimulus (test
materials) or the required response-or both- are ambiguous
oE.g. Rorschach test- is asked to provide a spontaneous