PSYB01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Social Control Theory, Electra Complex, Oedipus Complex

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15 Apr 2012
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Psychology and the Law 4/15/2012
Chapter 3 – Theories of Crime: Learning and Environmental.
Why people become involved in Criminal activity?
A. Psychodynamic: Humans are thought to be inherently antisocial, driven by pleasure seeking
and destructive impulses.
oAccording to this perspective crime occurs when these impulses are not controlled.
This is usually a result of forces failing regulate these impulses.
Example of psychoanalyst explanation:
Having examined hundred of people who have killed… I have found that homicide usually does not
originate because of a clearly defined impulse to kill, but is released by the intensity of internal
conflicts.
When as children we feel hurt by people’s rejection or criticism we either give vent to it or push away
from our mind our real resentment until we “forget” about them. They become unconscious. When
we continue to repress and it becomes a pattern of behavior, without finding any outward expression
or release, these hateful emotions accumulate within us. If we are unable to curb these hostile
feelings, our ego-protecting defenses crumble and murderous acting-out impulses emerge.
Definitions:
Id:
- where pleasure-seeking and destructive impulses originate
- Part of an individual’s personality that is present at birth and represents unconscious primitive
and instinctual desires.
- Is governed by the pleasure principle
Pleasure principle:
- Seeks immediate pleasure with little consideration of the undesirable consequences that may
result in an impulse is acted upon
oThis is controlled for in one of two ways:
1) Psychoanalysts believe that the activity of the id is opposed by the next
personality structure to develop, the ego:
Ego:
- Which attempts to mediate between one’s primal needs and society’s demands
- The ego is directed by the:
Reality principle:
- Its development coincides with the mergence of reality-oriented thinking and it allows the id
to function in socially acceptable ways by suppressing the id’s impulses until appropriate
situations arise.
2) Second, in challenging id drives, the ego is guided by the:
Superego:
- The last of the three personality systems to develop according to psychoanalysts
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Psychology and the Law 4/15/2012
- Represents the internalization of group standards, typically conveyed to the child through
parental care and discipline.
- It acts as a moral regulator
- Thought to consist of two subsystems :
a. Conscience: allows an individual to distinguish between right and wrong and
forces the ego to inhibit id pursuits that are out of line with one’s morals and
b. The ego-ideal which represents the socially accepted standards to which we all
aspire.
Table 3.1 – Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development
Stage Description
Oral - Begins at birth and end around age 1- 1.5.
- Child is preoccupied with seeking gratification though
sucking and feeding.
Anal - Begins around age 1 ( with the introduction of toilet
training) to age two or three
- Primary conflict: one of control, as the child has to learn
to delay the pleasure associated with bodily expulsion.
Phallic - Begins around age two or three and lasts until age five to
six.
- Primary conflict: sexual.
- At this stage, the child becomes interested in their
genitals and begins to develop an unconscious desire for the
opposite sex parent and fear of retribution from the same –sex
parent.
This conflict is called Oedipus complex in
boys
In girls it is called : Electra complex
Latent - Begins around five to six and lasts until puberty.
- A time where the sexual drive becomes de-emphasized
and repressed sexual energy gets redirected to asexual
pursuits such as same-sex friendships.
Genital - Begins in adolescence and lasts until adulthood.
- Interest in the genitals is reborn and the individual
focuses on a search for intimacy with an opposite-sex
adult partner.
Sources of criminal behavior – relating to inadequate superego formation:
1. The individual who commits crime as a result of harsh superego is referred to as a neurotic
criminal.
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