Chapter 2 Textbook Notes

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31 Mar 2011
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Chapter 2: Where to Start
HYPOTHESIS AND PREDICTIONS
Hypothesis: idea or question, waiting for evidence to disprove it
Can be stated as informal or formal research question
After hypothesis, design experiment to test it out
Prediction: prediction of outcome of experiment
oSupports hypothesis is prediction is correct (doesnt prove)
oOr reject hypothesis if disproved
WHO WE STUDY: A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY
APA says humans in psych. research are participants
oAlso called:
Subjects
Respondents (surveys)
Informants (learn about culture/organization)
SOURCES OF IDEAS
Common Sense
Helps us ask questions, use research to prove right/wrong
oE.g. picture worth a thousand words, pics can also detract from learning
Observation of the World Around Us
We get ideas from personal and social observations
oe.g. do we forget where things are when we put them in secret place (yes)
research lets us discover and apply things learned from observations
serendipity can be inspiration, things happen by accident
Theories
Theory is collective ideas about a topic or phenomenon
Organize and explain facts
oE.g. Darwin theory of evo. organized and explain facts we already knew
Generate new knowledge by focusing think so we notice new aspects
oe.g. theory of evo. generates new hypotheses about evolution
Theories are more than hypotheses, they are from actual data and have hypotheses
that relate to the theory
oi.e. not just an idea
can be modified when hypotheses are falsified
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Who we study: a note on term i nology: apa says humans in psych. research are participants , also called: Common sense: helps us ask questions, use research to prove right/wrong, e. g. Picture worth a thousand words , pics can also detract from learning. Theories: theory is collective ideas about a topic or phenomenon, organize and explain facts, e. g. Science citation index and social sciences citation index: science citation index and social sciences citation index: search resource, tells you which articles cited the one you picked, allows you to find more articles. Literature reviews summarize research in fields: e. g. psychological bulletin and annual review of psychology. Other electronic search resources: eric (educational resources information center, psycaritcles all articles from apa, not just abstracts, shouldn"t limit ourselves to full-text databases. Apa, cpa meetings: evaluating web information, association - website associated with major educational institution or research org. is good.

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