# Chapter 4 Textbook Notes

36 views6 pages
31 Mar 2011
School
Department
Course
Professor
Chapter 4: Studying Behaviour
VARIABLES
Variable: Event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies
oe.g. gender
Within each variable there are different levels or values
oE.g. male or female
4 categories of variables:
oSituational variable characteristics of situation or environment
E.g. length of words in book
oResponse responses or behaviour of ppl
E.g. reaction time
oParticipant / subject individual differences
E.g. gender
oMediating variables variable btw sit. var and response
i.e. determines response
e.g. diffusion of responsibility - helping less likely when there are more
bystanders
Number of bystanders Diffusion of responsibility Helping behaviour
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF VARIABLES
variables can be abstract so need operational definition, concrete
oOperational definition: def of var in terms of operations or techniques used
to measure/manipulate
E.g. measuring cognitive task performance (variable), number of
errors on proof reading (operational def)
abstract variables have more options for op def
oe.g. stress (variable) health probs etc. (there are many stressors) 
frequency of heart attack (op def)
picking op def is up to researcher, choices have advantages and disadvantages
RELATINSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES
Variables can be numeric or categorical
Relationships between variables: Positive linear, negative linear, curvilinear,
no relationship
Positive Linear Relationship
As x, y or both decrease together 
oE.g. faster speech rate correlated with more attitude change
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Negative Linear Relationship
As x, y (or vice versa) 
oE.g. more workers can reduce group effort
Curvilinear Relationship
x, y/  
oe.g. as complexity of visual stimuli , liking . Until a point, liking (in this 
case inverted U shape)
No Relationship
flat line
monotonic relationships that dont change
oe.g. +/- rel
correlation coefficient: number indicating strength of relationship
Relationships and Reduction of Uncertainty
relationships decrease uncertainty (randomness) about world
oi.e. random variability or error variance
random/error variance variance in scores
oi.e. the proportion you cant predict from results
ocan reduce by including another variable
NONEXPERIMENTAL VERSUS EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
nonexperimental method: observations/measures of variables (naturally)
oe.g. directly observing behaviour
experimental method: direct manipulation and control of variables
o2 vars dont just vary together, var can affect second variable
Nonexperimental Method
Also called correlational method
oLets use see how variables move with each other
2 Problems inferring cause and effect using nonexperimental:
1.Hard to determine direction of cause and effect
2.Could be third variable
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

## Document Summary

Variables: variable: event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies, e. g. gender, within each variable there are different levels or values, e. g. male or female. 4 categories of variables: situational variable characteristics of situation or environment. e. g. length of words in book: response responses or behaviour of ppl. e. g. reaction time: participant / subject individual differences. e. g. gender: mediating variables variable btw sit. var and response i. e. determines response var and response i. e. determines response e. g. diffusion of responsibility - helping less likely when there are more bystanders. Number of bystanders diffusion of responsibility helping behaviour. Operat ional def i n i t ions of variables variables can be abstract so need operational definition, concrete: operational definition: def of var in terms of operations or techniques used to measure/manipulate. Relatinships between variables: variables can be numeric or categorical, relationships between variables: positive linear, negative linear, curvilinear, no relationship.

## Get access

\$8 USD/m\$10 USD/m
Billed \$96 USD annually
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class