Textbook Notes (381,070)
CA (168,341)
UTSC (19,304)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYB01H3 (581)
Anna Nagy (283)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Textbook Notes

6 Pages
47 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Chapter 4: Studying Behaviour
VARIABLES
Variable: Event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies
oe.g. gender
Within each variable there are different levels or values
oE.g. male or female
4 categories of variables:
oSituational variable characteristics of situation or environment
E.g. length of words in book
oResponse responses or behaviour of ppl
E.g. reaction time
oParticipant / subject individual differences
E.g. gender
oMediating variables variable btw sit. var and response
i.e. determines response
e.g. diffusion of responsibility - helping less likely when there are more
bystanders
Number of bystanders Diffusion of responsibility Helping behaviour
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF VARIABLES
variables can be abstract so need operational definition, concrete
oOperational definition: def of var in terms of operations or techniques used
to measure/manipulate
E.g. measuring cognitive task performance (variable), number of
errors on proof reading (operational def)
abstract variables have more options for op def
oe.g. stress (variable) health probs etc. (there are many stressors) 
frequency of heart attack (op def)
picking op def is up to researcher, choices have advantages and disadvantages
RELATINSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES
Variables can be numeric or categorical
Relationships between variables: Positive linear, negative linear, curvilinear,
no relationship
Positive Linear Relationship
As x, y or both decrease together 
oE.g. faster speech rate correlated with more attitude change
www.notesolution.com
Negative Linear Relationship
As x, y (or vice versa) 
oE.g. more workers can reduce group effort
Curvilinear Relationship
x, y/  
oe.g. as complexity of visual stimuli , liking . Until a point, liking (in this 
case inverted U shape)
No Relationship
flat line
oe.g. crowding and task performance
monotonic relationships that dont change
oe.g. +/- rel
correlation coefficient: number indicating strength of relationship
Relationships and Reduction of Uncertainty
relationships decrease uncertainty (randomness) about world
oi.e. random variability or error variance
random/error variance variance in scores
oi.e. the proportion you cant predict from results
ocan reduce by including another variable
NONEXPERIMENTAL VERSUS EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
nonexperimental method: observations/measures of variables (naturally)
oe.g. directly observing behaviour
experimental method: direct manipulation and control of variables
oe.g. ask if saw the broken headlight or a broken headlight
o2 vars dont just vary together, var can affect second variable
Nonexperimental Method
Also called correlational method
oLets use see how variables move with each other
2 Problems inferring cause and effect using nonexperimental:
1.Hard to determine direction of cause and effect
2.Could be third variable
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 4: Studying Behaviour VARIABLES Variable: Event, situation, behaviour, or individual characteristic that varies o e.g. gender Within each variable there are different levels or values o E.g. male or female 4 categories of variables: o Situational variable characteristics of situation or environment E.g. length of words in book o Response responses or behaviour of ppl E.g. reaction time o Participant subject individual differences E.g. gender o Mediating variables variable btw sit. var and response i.e. determines response e.g. diffusion of responsibility - helping less likely when there are more bystanders Number of bystanders Diffusion of responsibility Helping behaviour OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF VARIABLES variables can be abstract so need operational definition, concrete o Operational definition: def of var in terms of operations or techniques used to measuremanipulate E.g. measuring cognitive task performance (variable), number of errors on proof reading (operational def) abstract variables have more options for op def o e.g. stress (variable) health probs etc. (there are many stressors) frequency of heart attack (op def) picking op def is up to researcher, choices have advantages and disadvantages RELATINSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES Variables can be numeric or categorical Relationships between variables: Positive linear, negative linear, curvilinear, no relationship Positive Linear Relationship As x, y or both decrease together o E.g. faster speech rate correlated with more attitude change www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit