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Chapter 11

PSYB01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Program Evaluation, Quasi, Causal Inference

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Anna Nagy

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Chapter 11- Single- Case, Quasi- Experimental, and Developmental Research
- A.k.a single-subject designs
- - determines whether an experimental manipulation has an effect on a single
research P
- Subject’s behaviour is measured over time during baseline control period
- Manipulation is then introduced during treatment period; and P’s behaviour is still
Reversal Design
- Baseline period treatment period baseline period
- ABA design/ withdrawal design (since treatment is withdrawn)
- Can be improves to an ABAB or ABABAB design
o Helps to see if change in behaviour was due to a different variable
o Ethical- not right to end the treatment, so it’s best to add the B
Multiple Baseline Design
- Effectiveness of the design is shown when a behaviour changes only after the
manipulation is introduced
- Change must be observed under MULTIPLE circumstances to rule out other causes
- Several variations:
o Multiple baseline across subjects- behaviour of several subjects is measured
over time; for each subject, the manipulation is given at a different time
o Multiple baseline across behaviours- several different behaviours of a single
subject are measured over time; at different times, the same manipulation is
applied to each of the behaviours
o Multiple baseline across situations-same behaviour is measured across
different settings; manipulation is introduced at a different time in each
- Program evaluation- research on programs that are implemented to achieve some
positive effect on a group of individuals
- 5 types of evaluations to try to answer a different question about the program:
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1) Needs assessment
a. Are there problems that need to be addressed in a target population?
b. When a need is established, programs can be planned to address needs
2) Program Theory Assessment
a. Collaboration of researchers, service providers, and prospective clients
of the program to determine that the proposed programs foes address
the needs of the target population appropriately
3) Process Evaluation
a. A.k.a program monitoring
b. Evaluation researcher monitors program to see if its reaching the target
population, when its attracting clients and whether the staff is providing
planned services
c. Questionnaires, surveys and observational studies are used to see if
program is IMPLEMENTED correctly so it has good outcomes
4) Outcome Evaluation
a. A.k.a impact assessment
b. Are the goals being achieved?
c. Evaluation researcher must measure outcome and study the impact of
the program on the outcome measure
d. Quasi-experimental and single case designs are used to assess impact
5) Efficiency Assessment
a. When shown that the program does have its intended effect,
researchers must determine whether it’s worth the resources it
b. Can the resources be put to better use?
- Quasi-experimental design- studies the effect of an independent variable in setting
in which the control features of true experimental designs can't be achieved
- Causal inference is more difficult since there is NO random assignment
One-Group Posttest-Only Design
- A.k.a one-shot case study
- Has no control or comparison group
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