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Chapter 5

# PSYB01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Inter-Rater Reliability, Discriminant Validity, Content Validity

by OC324951

Department

PsychologyCourse Code

PSYB01H3Professor

Anna NagyChapter

5PSYBO1 RESEARCH METHODS CHAPTER NOTES

CHAPTER 5: MEASURING CONCEPTS

Reliability: consistency or stability of a measure of behaviour

Same result is observed with every administration

A reliable measure does not fluctuate from one reading to another

Proportion of true scores in a measure: Variance of true scores (T) / Variance of the

measure (X)

True score: real score on the variable

Measurement error: unreliable measure of intelligence contains considerable

measurement error

Reliability can be increased by making multiple measures

Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r)

Test-retest Reliability: assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time

-the correlation maybe artificially high because the participants remember how they

responded the first time.

-alternate forms reliability is used to avoid this problem: it requires administering two

different forms of the same test to same individuals at two points in time

Internal consistency reliability: assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in

time

Split-half reliability- the correlation of the total score on one half of the test with the total

score on the other half

-combined measure will have more items and will be more reliable [Spearman-Brown split-

half reliability coefficient]

cronbach’s alpha: provides us with the average of all possible split-half reliability coefficients

-scores on each item are correlated with scores on every other item

-average of all the inter-item correlation coefficients and the number of items in the measure

-item-total correlation- provide information about each individual item.

Interrater Reliability- the extent to which raters agree in their observations

-high interrater reliability is obtained when most of the observations result in the same

judgment.

Construct validity is a question of whether the measure that is employed actually measures the

construct it is intended to measure

Face validity: the content of the measure appears to reflect the construct being measured. Do the

procedures used to measuere the variable appear to be an accurate operational definition of

the theoretical variable?

Content validity- the content of measure is linked to the universe of content that defines the

construct.

Predictive validity- scores on the measure predict the behaviour on a criterion measured at a

future time. The criterion measure is based on the future behaviour or outcomes

Concurrent validity- scores on the measure are related to a criterion measured at the same time. A

common method is to study whether two or more groups of people differ on the measure in

expected ways; another is to study how people who score either low or high on the measure

behave in different situations

Convergent validity- score on the measure are related to other measures of the same construct

Discriminant validity- scores on the measure are not related to the other measures that are

theoretically different.

Reactivity:

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PSYBO1 RESEARCH METHODS CHAPTER NOTES

A measure is said to be reactive if awareness of being measured changes an individual’s

behaviour.

A reactive measure tells what the person is like when he/she is aware of being observed.

Scales of measurement:

Nominal- no numeric values; impossible to define any quantitative values and or differences

between/across categories

Ordinal- rank ordering; numeric values limited, intervals between items not known

Interval- numeric properties are literal; assume equal interval between values. No true zero

Ratio- zero indicates absence of variable measured; can form ratios

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###### Document Summary

Reliability: consistency or stability of a measure of behaviour. A reliable measure does not fluctuate from one reading to another. Proportion of true scores in a measure: variance of true scores (t) / variance of the measure (x) True score: real score on the variable. Measurement error: unreliable measure of intelligence contains considerable measurement error. Reliability can be increased by making multiple measures. Test-retest reliability: assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time. The correlation maybe artificially high because the participants remember how they responded the first time. Alternate forms reliability is used to avoid this problem: it requires administering two different forms of the same test to same individuals at two points in time. Internal consistency reliability: assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in time. Split-half reliability- the correlation of the total score on one half of the test with the total score on the other half.

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