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Chapter 8

PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Social Loafing, Deindividuation, Group Cohesiveness


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8
Group Processes
Group
-a collection of two or more people who interact with each other and are
interdependent, in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on
each other.
-Groups can include school teams, family, campus groups, community groups,
temporary groups (classmates in a school project) etc.
-Group membership also plays an important role in motivating people to
become involved in social change.
-A group cannot be known as a group if it involved many people. For
example a college or university you attend is not a social group, because
you are unlikely to meet and interact with every student there.
-Another important feature of groups is that the members tend to be alike in
age, sex, beliefs, and opinions.
Social roles
-shared expectations by group members about how particular people in the
group are suppose to behave.
-Ex a boss and an employee in a company occupy different roles and are
expected to act in different ways in that setting.
-People ca get so into a role that their personal identity and personality is lost.
Example participants either were the prison or the guard for two weeks.
Wanted to see whether they began to act like real prisoners or guards. They
wanted to see if they actually become that role they were playing.
-Gender roles are also involved when it comes to social roles. Women are seen
to become a house wife and a mother, whereas men are seen to pursue a career
and bring in the income.
Group Cohesiveness
-How tightly knit the group is
-Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among
them.
-Would you rather spend your free time with people who you don’t really care
about for each other ot with a tightly knit bunch of people who feel commiited
to each other. Example, you find a bunch of friends who like to go watch
movies.
Social Facilitation
-when the presence of others affects/energizes us
-the tendency for people to do better on simple tasts, but worse on complex
tasks, when they are in the presence of other and their individual performance
can be evaluated.
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-the presence of others can mean one of two things:
1) Performing a task with other who are doing the same thing you are
2) Performing a task in front of an audience that is not doing anything except
observing you.
-if you know that a task is simple or difficult for you, it will affect your
performance. If there is a task that you know how to do (ex. Playing pool)
then performance should be improved with the presence of others. If however
you do not know how to play pool, and you find it as a difficult task, then
your performance will be in habited in the presence of others. If you know
how to play pool and you feel comfortable playing it, then the arousal caused
by the presence of other should improve your game.
-When an individual is around other people, that individual does better on tasks
that are simple and well learned, but worse on tasks that are complex and
require them to learn something new ( learning a new sport)
Three reasons for causes of arousal when in presence of others:
1) Other people cause us to become particularly alert and vigilant
2) They make us apprehensive about how we’re being evaluated ( if you do
poorly then you will feel embarrassed but pleased if you do well)
3) They distract us from the task at hand so we tend to lose focus and
concentration.
- Arousal enhances performance on simple tasks but impairs performance on complex
tasks.
Social Loafing
-The tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks, but better on complex
tasks, when they are in the presence of other and their individual performance
CANNOT be evaluated.
-When the presence of others relaxes us
-Merging into a group and becoming less noticeable than when we are alone,
we should become more relaxed.
-Social loafing in groups occur in a variety of simple tasks such as clapping
your hands, cheering loudly, and playing tug of war (you exert less effort
when you are with others rather than if you were pulling the rope on your
own).
-Social loafing occurs more in men than in women. This is so because women
tend to be higher than men in relational interdependence (tendency to focus on
and care about personal relationships with others).
-You need to know two things to predict whether the presence of other will
help or hinder you performance: whether your individual efforts can be
evaluated/noticed and whether the task is simple or complex.
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