PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Attachment Theory, Social Exchange Theory

24 views8 pages
user avatar
Published on 30 Sep 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
CHAPTER 9- INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION: FIRST IMPRESSIONS TO
CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS
Major Antecedents of Attraction
A central human motivation is self-expansion—the desire to overlap or
blend with another person, so that you have access to that person’s
knowledge, insights, and experiences
The Person Next Door: The Propinquity Effect
Simplest determinants of interpersonal attraction is proximity
Propinquity effect is the finding that the more we see and interact
with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
Attraction and propinquity rely not only on actual physical distance but
also on functional distance—certain aspects of architectural design
that make it likely that some people will come into contract with each
other more often than other
The mere exposure effect states that the more exposure we have to a
stimulus, the more apt we are to like it (or dislike)
Similarity
Similarity is the match between our interests, background, attitudes,
and values and those of the other person
Complementarity is attraction to people who are opposite to us
Similarity in terms of attitudes and values is an important predictor of
attraction in both friendships and romantic relationships
we are also attracted to people who are similar to us in terms of
interpersonal style
similarity is important in attraction because:
owe tend to think that people who are similar to us will be
inclined to like us
opeople who are similar provide us with important social
validation for our characteristics and beliefs—provide us with
feeling that we are right
omore likely to feel understood by those who are similar to us—
the greater the similarity partners perceive, the more
understood they felt by their partner
attraction can lead to perceptions of similarity—the more attracted you
are to someone, the more similar we assume that person is to us
Reciprocal Liking
reciprocal liking is liking someone who likes us in return—prime
determinants of interpersonal attraction
liking is so powerful it can even make up for the absence of similarity
liking can also come about a self-fulfilling prophecy
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
reciprocal liking effects can only occur if you like yourself in the first
place—those with negative self-concepts tend to be skeptical about
others actually liking them
Effects of Physical Attractiveness in Liking
when people are asked about the qualities they desire in a dating
partner or a mate, physical attractiveness is not at the top of the list
oyet when it comes to people’s actual behaviour, appearance
seems to be the only thing that matters—at least in first
impressions
there is more tendency for men than women to place greater emphasis
on looks particularly in choosing a long-term partner
What is Attractive?
Attractiveness for women: large eyes, small nose, small chin,
prominent cheekbones, narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils
and a big smile
Attractiveness for men: large chin, big smile, prominent cheekbones,
large eyes
Both sexes admire “baby face” feature to be attractive because they
elicit feelings of warmth and nurturance in perceivers
oProminent cheekbones are found in those “sexually mature”
Cultural Standards of Beauty
Even though racial and ethnic groups do vary in specific facial features,
people from a wide range of cultures agree on what is attractive in the
human face
Perceivers think that some faces are just better looking than others
regardless of cultural background
Research finds that the arithmetic average of faces is more attractive
than the individual photographs that made up the composite
othe facial composites produced what the researchers call a
“typical” or “familiar” face
ohowever, if a composite face is created with highly attractive
faces, we find the composite more attractive than a composite
made of average in attractiveness
The Power of Familiarity
crucial variable that explains interpersonal attraction may actually be
familiarity
Assumptions about Attractive People
Why might those who are physically attractive get preferential
treatment?
oWe make about attractive individuals—most people assume
attractiveness is highly correlated with other desirable traits
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Participants attributed more positive qualities to attractive women-
regardless of age
oHowever, senior men attributed more positive qualities to
attractive young women than to attractive older women
The beautiful are thought to be more sociable, extroverted and popular
than the less attractive—and also more sexual, more happy and more
assertive
oResearch has shown this to be true because beautiful people
receive a good deal of social attention that helps them develop
those social skills
Cultural Differences
Those who live in individualist cultures that value independence,
individuality and self-reliance included traits of personal strength in
beauty
Those in a collectivist culture that reflect integrity and concern for
others
Attraction and the Misattribution of Arousal
Misattribution of arousal whereby people mistaken inferences about
what is causing them to feel the way they do
oAn attractive lady on a suspension bridge approaches you and
asks you to fill out a questionnaire for her (about scenic
attractions)
oAfter you complete the questionnaire, the woman thanks you
and says she would be happy to explain the study more and
tears off a corner of the questionnaire and write her phone
number
oDue to the arousal of the suspension bridge, you will mistakenly
think some of this arousal is the result of attraction to the
beautiful woman
Forming Close Relationships
Defining Love
love as feelings of intimacy, attachment and passion and is a feeling
distinct from liking
Companionate versus Passionate Love
companionate love is defined as the feelings of intimacy and
affection we feel toward someone with whom our lives are deeply
intertwined
ocan be experienced in non-sexual relationships
passionate love involves an intense longing for another person—great
fulfillment and ecstasy when things are going well and great sadness
and despair when things are not
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Major antecedents of attraction: a central human motivation is self-expansion the desire to overlap or blend with another person, so that you have access to that person"s knowledge, insights, and experiences. Typical or familiar face: however, if a composite face is created with highly attractive faces, we find the composite more attractive than a composite made of average in attractiveness. The power of familiarity crucial variable that explains interpersonal attraction may actually be familiarity. Cultural differences: those who live in individualist cultures that value independence, individuality and self-reliance included traits of personal strength in beauty, those in a collectivist culture that reflect integrity and concern for others. Defining love love as feelings of intimacy, attachment and passion and is a feeling distinct from liking. Individualistic culture values passionate love, collectivist culture values companionate. Long-term relationships seem to be governed by a looser give-and- take notion of equity rather than a rigid tit-for-tat strategy.