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Chapter 1

PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Autopilot, Idiosyncrasy, Minority Influence

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Conformity (pg 191-229)
6:14 PM
Conformity: a change in behaviour as a result of the real or imagined influence of other
Implicit social influence: influence caused by increasing the accessbility of social beliefs
in working memory. Occurs typically outside of awareness.
Information social influence: conforming because we believe that other's interpretation
of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course
of action.
o We see other people as a source of information to guide our behaviour.
o (e.g. Sherif's dot experiment regarding the autokinetic effect)
Private acceptance: conforming to other people's behaviour out of a genuine belief that
what they are doing or saying is right. Likely to change long term behaviour
Public compliance: conforming to other people's behaviour publicly, without necessarily
believing in what they are doing or saying. May or may not change behaviour in the long run.
When Will People Conform to Information Social Influence
When the Situation is Ambiguous:
o When you are unsure of a correct response, the appropriate behaviour, or the
right idea you will be most open to influence from others.
o The more uncertain you are the more you will rely on others.
When the Situation is a Crisis:
o When the situation is a crisis, we usually do not have time to think and it is
natural for us to see how other people are responding.
o Contagion: the rapid transmission of emotion or behaviour through a crowd.
When Other People are Experts:
o The more expertise or knowledge a person has, the more valuable he or she will
be as a guide in an ambiguous or crisis situation.
Mass psychogenic illness: the occurrence of similar physical symptoms in a group of
people for which there is no known physical or medical cause. (e.g the War of the Worlds broadcast)
Resisting Informational Social Influence
It is possible to resist illegitimate or inaccurate informational social influence.
Influences how people define reality. If you conform you see the world as they do, if you
don't then you see the world different from the way they do.
Look for non-human evidence
Remember your consistency bias
If something is wrong, then be the one who speaks out.
Normative Social Influence: The Need to be Accepted
Normative social influence: the influence of other people that leads us to conform in
order to be liked and accepted by them.
o Results in public compliance but not necessarily with private acceptance of the
group's beliefs and behaviours.
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o Caused by power of social norms, and conformity and social approval.
Social norms: the implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviours,
values, and beliefs of its members.
o Members who don't are seen has different, difficult, and eventually deviant.
o Members are expected to conform to these norms.
Conformity and Social Approval: The Asch Line Judgment Studies
The study when Solomon Asch conducted with confederates and the actual participant
were shown two cards one with one single like and one card with 3 different lines in different
lengths and they were told to choose which line was closest to the one on the first card.
Results: 76% of the participants conformed on at least one trial, and on average people
conformed about 1/3 of the 12 trials on which the confederates gave the wrong answer.
Normative social influence occurs because people feel negative emotions such as
discomfort and tension, when they stand up for their beliefs and go against the group.
When Will People Conform to Normative Social Influence?
Social Impact Theory: the theory that conforming to social influence depends on the
strengths of the group, its immediacy (how close the group to you in space and time during the
influence attempt) , and the number of other people in the group.
o Conformity will increase as strength and immediacy increase.
o The more important a group is to us the more likely we are to conform to its
normative pressures.
o The number of people however has a different affect, the more people the less
influential each person is.
When group size is 3 or more:
o Conformity increases as the number of people in the group increase but only up
to a point.
o Conformity pressures generally increase as the size of the majority increases.
When the group is Important:
o Groups to which we are highly attracted and with which we strongly identify will
exert more normative influence on us than groups to which we have little or not attachment.
o When we are attracted to a group and are reminded that we don't quite fit in
we are especially motivated to conform.
When the group is unanimous:
o Normative social influence is most powerfully felt when everyone in the group
says or believes the same thing.
o You are less likely to conform if another person in the group disagrees with the
Gender Differences in Conformity:
o Found on average men are less easily influenced than women but the size of the
difference is very small.
o Gender differences are most likely to be found in group-pressure situations
where an audience can directly observe how much you conform; in this case women are more
likely to conform
This could be because of the social roles men and women are taught.
Women are to be more agreeable and supportive, and men are taught to be more
independent in the face of direct social pressure.
When the Group's Culture is Collectivist:
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