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Chapter 5

PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Gordon Allport, Thought Suppression, Role Theory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Chapter
5

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Chapter #5 Notes:
Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination:
The Nature of the Problem: Persistence and Change:
Defining Our Terms:
Racism prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s background; racism exists at several
levels
o Individual, institutional, cultural levels
Another way to define racism is as institutional and cultural practices that promote the
domination of one racial group over another
Sexism prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender, or as institutional and
cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender (typically men) over another
(typically women)
Stereotypes as beliefs or associations that link whole groups of people with certain traits or
characteristics
Prejudice consists of negative feelings about others because of their connection to a social
group
Discrimination behaviours specifically negative behaviours directed against persons because
of their membership in a particular group
Group two or more people perceived as having at least one of the following characteristics:
o direct interactions with each other over a period of time
o joint membership in a social category based on sex, race or other attributes
o shared, common fate, identity or set of goals
o ingroups groups we relate to as our own
o outgroups groups other than our own
Racism: Current Forms and Challenges:
Blatant racism is becoming increasing less acceptable
Discrimination may be on the rise though in Western Europe
Modern Racism:
Modern racism a subtle form of prejudice that surfaces in direct ways whenever it is safe,
socially acceptable or easy to rationalize; far more subtle
Implicit Racism:
Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally
Can skew judgement without inducing the guilt that more obvious, explicit forms of racism
would trigger
Most well-known measure to test this is the Implicit Association Test (IAT)
o Measures the extent to which two concepts are associated
Individual’s degree of implicit racism sometimes predicts difference in their perceptions of and
reactions to others as a function of race
Interracial Perceptions:
Divides b/w racial and ethnic groups tend to be more vast and pay promote stronger feelings of
hostility, fear and distrust than the divides based on other social categories
o Strengthened by: relative lack of contact b/w people of diff racial/ethnic groups
o The stigma of being perceived as racist is especially troubling for most people
Perceiving a member of a racial outgroup may trigger different more emotional reactions that
perceiving an ingroup member

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o fMRI detected responses in the amygdala activation for outgroup members, also greater
activation for blacks than whites faces
o in addition greater activation was associated with higher levels of implicit prejudice
Interracial Interactions:
increased cardiovascular reactions associated with feelings of threat
individuals engaging in intergroup interactions often activate metastereotypes or thoughts
about the outgroup’s stereotypes about them and worry about being seen as consistent with
these stereotypes
People try to avoid interracial interaction for fear of appearing racist or being treated in a racist
way
Sexism: Ambivalence and Double Standards:
Old-fashioned blatant displays of sexism are less socially accepted today than in the past
Gender stereotypes are distinct from virtually all other stereotypes in that they are prespective
rather than merely descriptive
Sexism involves more ambivalence between positive and negative feelings and beliefs than
other forms of prejudice and discrimination
Ambivalent Sexism:
Stereotypes of women tend to be more positive than stereotypes of men
However positive traits associated with women are less valued in important domains than those
with men
Ambivalent sexism: Peter Glick an Susan Fiske’s consists of 2 elements:
o Hostile sexism negative, resentful feelings about women’s abilities, value and ability
to challenge men’s power
o Benevolent sexism affectionate, chivalrous feelings founded on the potentially
patronizing belief that women need and deserve protection (women feel more
favourably towards men who exhibit this)
o Two forms of sexism are + correlated
o Found strong support for prevalent ambivalent sexism around the world
Sex Discrimination: Double Standards and Pervasive Stereotypes:
People often devalue the performance of women who take on tasks usually reserved for men
and attribute their achievements to luck rather than ability
Causes of the Problem: Intergroup and Motivational Factors:
No one is immune from stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination
Fundamental Motives between Groups:
Fundamental tenet of social psychology is the social nature of the human animal
Need to affiliate with relatively small groups of similar others; these affiliations fill the more
basic motive of self-protection
Being in a dark environment would trigger a person’s self-protective motive more than being in
a bright one
Optimal distinctiveness theory people try to balance the desire to belong and affiliate with
others and the desire to be distinct and differentiated from others
o May drive people to identify with relatively small ingroups
Robbers Cave: A Field Study in Intergroup Conflict:
Superordinate goals mutual goals that could be achieved only through cooperation between
the groups
Example 11 year old boys at camp in 2 separate teams rivals similar goals cooperation
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Realistic Conflict Theory:
The view that direct competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility
o “realistic competition” for resources may be imagined in the mind of the ind not
involved in any conflict
o Second, people may become resentful of other groups, not because of their conviction
that their own security or resources are threatened by these groups, but because of
their sense of relative deprivation belief that they far poorly compared with others
Social Identity Theory:
Minimal groups categorized on the basis of trivial, minimally important similarities
Ingroup favouritism pattern of discrimination; can be triggered just by the language we use
(subtle)
o We, us and ours triggered positive emotions
o They, them and theirs triggered negative emotions
Social identity theory proposed by Tajfel and Turned each of us strives to enhance our self-
esteem which has 2 components:
o Personal identity
o Various collective or social identities that are based on the groups to which we belong
o We derive pride from our connections with others even if we don’t receive any direct
benefits from these others
Basic Predictions:
2 basic predictions from social identity theory:
o Threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for ingroup favourism
o Expressions of ingroup favouritism enhance one’s self-esteem
*Insert figure 5.5
A blow to one’s self-image provokes prejudice and the expression of prejudice helps to restore
self-image
Situational and Individual Differences:
Greater ingorup identification linked with stronger social identity effects
Culture and Social Identity:
Cultural differences can influence social identity processes
Collectivists are more likely that individualists to value their connectedness and
interdependence with the people and groups around them, and their personal identities are
tired closely with their social identities
People from collectivist cultures less likely that people from individualist cultures to show biases
favouring their ingroups in order to boost their self-esteem
Motives Concerning Intergroup Dominance and Status:
Social dominance orientation a desire to see one’s ingroups as dominant over other groups
and a willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups
Social dominance orientations promote self-interest
System justification: John Jost processes that endorse and legitimize existing social
arrangements
o Protect the status quo
Causes of the Problem: Cognitive and Cultural Factors:
How stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination result from the basic ways that people learn
information available to their culture and process information about other people
Social Categorization:
People sort each other into groups of the basis of common attributes (gender, race, etc.)
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