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Chapter 5

PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Thought Suppression, Contact Hypothesis, Subtyping

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Chapter 5
Racism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s racial background, or
institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over
Sexism: Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender, or institutional and
cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender over another
Stereotypes: beliefs or associations that link whole groups of people with certain traits or
Prejudice: negative feelings about others because of their connection to a social group
Discrimination: negative behaviors directed against persons because of their membership
in a particular group
Group: two or more people having at least one of the following characteristics:
o Direct interactions with each other over a period of time
o Joint membership in a social category based on sex, race or other attributes
o Shared, common fate, identity or a set of goals
Ingroups: groups that we identify with
Outgroups: groups that are other than our own
Modern Racism
A subtle form of prejudice that surfaces in direct ways whenever it is safe, socially
acceptable, or easy to rationalize
Many people are racially ambivalent
o Want to see themselves fair but still harbor feelings of anxiety and discomfort
concerning other racial groups
May show an opposite bias responding more favorably to blacks than whites
Implicit Racism
Operates unconsciously and unintentionally
Implicit Association Test (IAT) measure of unconscious attitudes, it is derived from the
speed at which people respond to pairings of concepts
o Black or white with good or bad
Implicit racial bias found in young children
Interracial Perceptions
Lack of contact between people of different racial and ethnic groups
Stigma of being perceived as racist is especially troubling
Heightened amygdala activity in response to racial outgroup faces
White participants showed greater amygdala activity
Interracial Interactions
Participants were more likely to exhibit cardiovascular reactions associated with feelings of
threat if the confederate was black
Whites may try to regulate their behaviours in order to not appear racist
Metastereotypes: thoughts about the outgroup’s stereotypes about them and worry about
being seen as consistent with these stereotypes
Interaction with a black individual caused individuals to be cognitively and emotionally
exhausted because they are afraid of appearing racist
White participants who were concerned with appearing prejudiced had increased stress
responses during an interracial encounter and increased behavioral anxiety
Those worried about appearing prejudiced displayed more physiological and behavioral
distress after repeated interracial encounters
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Chapter 5
Trying to avoid appearing racist can take so much effort and self-focus that it ironically
decreases one’s awareness of the other person present
Ambivalent Sexism
Stereotypes of women tend to be more positive than men’s
Ambivalent sexism: form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect
both negative resentful both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings, and affectionate,
chivalrous, but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings
o Hostile sexism: characterized by negative, resentful feelings of women’s abilities
o Benevolent sexism: characterized by affectionate, chivalrous feelings founded on the
potentially patronizing belief that women need and deserve protection
Women feel favorably toward men who exhibit benevolent sexism
Sex Discrimination
Women are paid less than their male counterparts
Intergroup and Motivational Factors
Realistic Conflict Theory
Direct competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility between groups
Prejudice in the world is driven by the realities of competition
Perception in the mind of an individual who is not engaged in any real conflict
o Realistic competition for resources may be imagined
Relative deprivation: feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly
compared to others
Social Identity Theory
Ingroup favoritism: tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups
Social identity theory: people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self
o A personal identity
o Various collective or social identities that are based on the groups to which we
o Boost their own personal achievements though affiliations with successful groups
Derive pride from out connections with others even if we don’t receive any direct benefits
Threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for ingroup favoritism
Expressions of ingroup favoritism enhance one’s self-esteem
A blow to one’s self-image evokes prejudice and the expression of prejudice helps to restore
Greater ingroup identification has been associated with stronger social identity effects
Culture and Social Identity
Collectivists are more likely than individualists to value their connectedness and
interdependence with people and groups around them
o Personal identities are tied closely with their social identities
People from collectivist cultures are less likely than people from individualist cultures to
show biases favoring their ingroups
Motives Concerning Intergroup Dominance and Status
People want to belong to groups that are small enough for them to feel unique
Ingroup loyalty are more intense for groups that are in the minority
Social dominance orientation: a desire to see one’s ingroups as dominant over other
groups and willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups
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