Textbook Notes (378,540)
CA (167,150)
UTSC (19,212)
Psychology (9,983)
PSYB10H3 (646)
Chapter 5

chapter 5 textbook notes

5 Pages
134 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Chapter 5
Self-knowledge and the Need to maintain Self-Esteem
The Self”
Williams James described the basic duality of our perception of self:
1) the self is composed of one’s thoughts and beliefs about oneself
2) The self is also the active processor of information, the “knower” or the “I”.
Self Concept
-The contents of oneself: that is, our knowledge about who we are.
Self Awareness
-Which is the act of thinking about ourselves.
These two concepts of the self concept and self awareness combine to create a
coherent sense of identity.
-People who are low on self concept clarity are more likely to be neurotic and have low
self-esteem, and are less likely to be aware of their internal states. They are less likely to
engage in positive forms of self focus such as reflection.
-Self concepts in humans develop around age 2-3 years (using the mirror rough test)
Self Schemas
-Mental structures that help us to organize our knowledge about ourselves and that
influence what we notice, think about, and remember about ourselves.
Independent view of the self
-Defining oneself in terms of one’s own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions,
and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings and actions of other people.
-Independence and uniqueness is encouraged.
Interdependent view of the self
-Defining oneself in terms of one’s relationships to other people; recognizing that
one’s behaviour is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of
others.
-Independence and uniqueness are frowned upon whereas interdependence and
connectedness are encouraged.
-This view of the self occurs in many Asian cultures and non westernized
countries.
Culture and gender also play a role in how people define themselves.
www.notesolution.com
Introspection
-The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts,
feelings, and motives.
-Two interesting things about introspection: 1) people do not reply on this source
of information as often as you might think. People spend very little time thinking
about themselves. 2) Even when people do introspect, the reasons for their
feelings and behaviour can be hidden from conscious awareness.
-When we are focused on our self, we have a tendency to erroneously assume that others
also share this awareness.
Self-Awareness Theory
-The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and
compare their behaviour with their internal standards and values.
-We become self-conscious, in the sense that we become objective, judgmental
observers of ourselves.
-Self-awareness makes us conscious of our internal standards and directs our
subsequent behaviour.
-Self-focus can also be a way of keeping you out of trouble, by reminding you of
your sense of right and wrong. Several studies have found that when people are
self-aware (ex. In front of a mirror), they are more likely to follow their moral
standards, such as avoiding the temptation to cheat on a test.
-Self awareness can have negative and positive effects, and in those cases were
self-awareness feels aversive, those bad feelings can be alleviated in either a
constructive or deconstructive manner.
Causal Theories
-Theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviours: typically, we
learn such theories from our culture.
Self-Perception Theory
-The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we
infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs.
-We infer our inner feelings form our behavior only when we are not sure how we
feel. Ex, if you are unsure if you’re a classical music lover.
-Self perception theory also claims that people evaluate whehther their behaviour
really reflects how they feel or whether the situation they are in made them act
that way.
Intrinsic Motivation
-The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not
because of external rewards or pressures.
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 5 Self-knowledge and the Need to maintain Self-Esteem The Self Williams James described the basic duality of our perception of self: 1) the self is composed of ones thoughts and beliefs about oneself 2) The self is also the active processor of information, the knower or the I. Self Concept - The contents of oneself: that is, our knowledge about who we are. Self Awareness - Which is the act of thinking about ourselves. These two concepts of the self concept and self awareness combine to create a coherent sense of identity. -People who are low on self concept clarity are more likely to be neurotic and have low self-esteem, and are less likely to be aware of their internal states. They are less likely to engage in positive forms of self focus such as reflection. -Self concepts in humans develop around age 2-3 years (using the mirror rough test) Self Schemas - Mental structures that help us to organize our knowledge about ourselves and that influence what we notice, think about, and remember about ourselves. Independent view of the self - Defining oneself in terms of ones own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions, and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings and actions of other people. - Independence and uniqueness is encouraged. Interdependent view of the self - Defining oneself in terms of ones relationships to other people; recognizing that ones behaviour is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others. - Independence and uniqueness are frowned upon whereas interdependence and connectedness are encouraged. - This view of the self occurs in many Asian cultures and non westernized countries. Culture and gender also play a role in how people define themselves. www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit