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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Course Code
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Chapter 5
Self- Knowledge and the Need to Maintain Self-Esteem
William James described the basic duality of our perception of self
1. The self is comprised of ones thoughts and beliefs about oneself, or
what he called the known or me
2. The self is also the active processor of information, the knower or
the I
The known aspect in modern times is known as the self-concept
Self-concept- the contents of the self; that is, our knowledge about who
we are
The knower or the I aspect is known as self-awareness
Self-awareness- the act of thinking about ourselves
Both aspects combine to create a coherent sense of identity
Self- the nature of the self-concept and how people come to know
themselves through self- awareness
Self recognition develops around the age of two for humans
Self-Schemas- mental structures that people use to organize their
knowledge about themselves and the influence what they notice, think
about, and remember about themselves
Self schemas act as lenses through which people view others
Self- reference effect- the tendency for people to remember information
better if they relate it themselves
Integrating information with out self schemas helps us organize it
better and connect it to other information about ourselves, which
makes us more likely to remember it later

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When people are motivated to see themselves as possessing a desired
quality or trait, they conduct a selective memory search for examples of
past behaviors consistent with that trait
Body if evidence then allows us to draw the rational conclusion that
the desirable trait is part of their self-schemas
The self also serves as an executive function, regulating peoples
behavior, choices and plans for the future
People are best at self-control when they are well rested and not too
stressed out
In Western culture people have an independent view of the self
Independent view of the self- defining oneself in terms of ones own
internal thoughts, feelings, and actions, and not in terms of the
thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people
In Eastern culture people have an interdependent view of the self
Interdependent view of the self- defining oneself in terms of ones
relationships to other people; recognizing that ones behavior is often
determined by the thoughts, feelings and actions of others
Connectedness and interdependence between people in that culture is
valued, where as independents and uniqueness is frowned on
What is viewed positive and normal behavior by one culture might be
viewed very differently by another
Self concept clarity is a western phenomenon, created by Jennifer
Campbell, based on the premise that the self is a stable configuration
of internal traits that govern behavior across situations
Japanese had a lower self-concept clarity than Canadians
Womens self-concepts reflect more relational interdependence, they
focus more on their close relationships
These relational traits are considered as more self-descriptive than
In the sentence completion test, it was found that women hold a more
relational view of the self, but only in individualist cultures, like
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