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Chapter 4

chapter 4

Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Chapter 4
Social Perception
Social perception-the study of how we form impressions of and make
inferences about other people
Nonverbal communication-the way in which people communicate,
intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include
facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement,
the use of touch and eye gaze
Encode- to express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or
patting someone on the back
Decode- to interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other
people express, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an
expression of condescension and not kindness
Affect blend- a facial expression in which one part of the face is
registering one emotion and another part of the face is registering a
different emotion
Display rules-culturally determined rules about which nonverbal
behaviors are appropriate to display
Emblems- nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions
within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations,
such as the “okay sign
Emblems are not universal, each culture has devised its own emblems
Women are better at encoding and decoding
Men better at detecting lies
Social role theory- the theory that sex differences in social behavior
derive from societys division of labor between the sexes; this division
leads to differences in gender-role expectations and sex-typed skills,
both of which are responsible for differences in mens and womens
social behavior
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Implicit personality theory- a type of schema people use to group
various kinds of personality traits together; for example, many people
believe that if someone is kind, he or she is generous as well
You can form impressions quickly
We make guesses about peoples personalities, such as how friendly or
outgoing they are, often based on their nonverbal behavior. Once we get
their we use our implicit behaviors to fill in the blanks, such as if they
have friendly they must be sincere as well
Attribution theory- a description of the way in which people explain the
causes of their own and other peoples behavior
Internal attribution- the inference that a person is behaving in a
certain way because of something about him or her, such as his or her
attitude, character, or personality
External attribution- the inferences that a person is behaving a certain
way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the
assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that
We are perceptually focused on people-they are who we notice-while the
situation, which is often hard to see ad hard to describe, can be
Covariation model- a theory stating that in order to form an
attribution about what caused a persons behavior, we systematically
note the pattern between the presences or absence of possible causal
factors and whether or no the behavior occurs
By discovering covariation in peoples behavior you are able to reach a
judgment about what caused their behavior
We examine three different types of information for covariation
Consensus information- information about the extent to which other
people behave the same way as the actor does toward the same
Distinctiveness information- information about the extent to which one
particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimulus
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