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Chapter 2

PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Canadian Psychological Association, Spurious Relationship, Candid Camera

Course Code
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Social Psychology, 4Ce (Aronson/Wilson/Akert/Fehr)
Chapter 2 Methodology: How Social Psychologists Do Research
Ch.2-01 The introduction to Chapter 2 began with descriptions of disagreements over the relation between
television violence and aggressive behaviour, and of situations in which people won't intervene to stop
violence. Why would authors begin Chapter 2 by describing these phenomena?
A)There are competing explanations for both phenomena, and research methods can be used to
establish the best explanation.
B)These topics address the most difficult issues that social psychologists will ever study.
C)Definitive explanations for both phenomena have been provided by social-psychological research.
D)These topics are a good example of what has yet to be studied in social psychology.
E)There is more literature on violence and aggression than on any other topic of interest to social
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 27-29
Skill: Conceptual
Ch.2-02 According to the authors, why are people often wrong in asserting that social psychology only reflects
common sense?
A)People's inferences about psychological phenomena are rarely based in fact.
B)Common sense is never correct.
C)People are largely ignorant about what exactly social psychologists study.
D)Most grandmothers' advice is based on common experience, not scientific evidence.
E)So-called common sense findings often make more sense in retrospect than in advance.
Answer: E
Type: MC Page Ref: 28-29
Skill: Factual
Ch.2-03 As an empirical science devoted to understanding human social behaviour, social psychology is most
B) theology.
C) linguistics.
D)moral philosophy.
E) literary criticism.
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 28-29
Skill: Conceptual
Ch.2-04 In which of the following disciplines are students most likely-by virtue of their experiences-to sigh, "Big
deal. I could have predicted that"?
A)Particle physics.
B)Organic chemistry.
C)Marine biology.
D)Social psychology.
E)Theoretical mathematics.
Answer: D
Type: MC Page Ref: 28-29
Skill: Applied
Ch.2-05 In Chapter 2, the authors included a brief quiz about research findings. This quiz was designed to
illustrate that
A)most research findings directly contradict folk wisdom.
B)so-called "obvious" research findings are not all that easy to predict in advance.
C)although people are not insightful "physicists," they are insightful "social psychologists."
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D)social psychology is really little more than common sense.
E) the wording of a quiz can easily be manipulated to trick the reader.
Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 28-29
Skill: Conceptual
Ch.2-06 The precise specification of how variables are measured or manipulated in a social psychological
experiment is called
B) interjudge reliability.
C) random assignment.
D)operational definition.
E) reliability.
Answer: D
Type: MC Page Ref: 32
Skill: Factual
Ch.2-07 When three observers record children’s behaviour in a park, it is essential to establish
A) internal validity.
B) interjudge reliability.
C)extrinsic reinforcement.
D)demand characteristics.
E)a theory.
Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 32
Skill: Conceptual
Ch.2-08 The Kitty Genovese murder inspired research on bystander apathy. This example illustrates the
usefulness of relying on ________ in formulating research hypotheses.
A)casual observations of everyday life
B) folk wisdom
C)common sense
D)social-psychological theory
E)personal experience
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 31
Skill: Conceptual
Ch.2-09 The _______ led Bibb Latan and John Darley to systematically test the situational factors that influence
people's responses to emergencies.
A)Bay of Pigs fiasco
B) Iran-Contra Affair
C)Vietnam War
D)Watergate scandal
E)murder of Kitty Genovese
Answer: E
Type: MC Page Ref: 31
Skill: Factual
Ch.2-10 Which of the following explanations for the failure of neighbors to come to Kitty Genovese's aid best
reflects the idea of diffusion of responsibility?
A)The cost of intervening was too high, so neighbors didn't help.
B)There were so many witnesses that no single person felt responsible to intervene.
C)The neighbors did not personally know Kitty Genovese.
D)Urban dwellers are especially callous when it comes to giving aid.
E)The neighbors did not interpret her cries as an emergency, so they didn't intervene.
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Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 31
Skill: Applied
Ch.2-11 Television programs such as Survivor and Big Brother, in which television cameras record the activities
of people as they interact, are most like ________ research in social psychology.
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 31-34
Skill: Factual
Ch.2-12 Professionals like actors, writers, and filmmakers employ observational methods to learn about social
situations. What makes their work different from the work of social psychologists?
A)Social psychologists are more likely to be participant observers.
B)These professionals seldom set out to answer a specific question.
C)The situations or events that these professionals observe are not of interest to scientific social
D)Social psychologists tend to employ a pre-arranged set of criteria to guide their observations.
E)These professionals are more interested in individual personality differences than a social
psychologist would be.
Answer: D
Type: MC Page Ref: 31-32
Skill: Conceptual
Ch.2-13 In many respects, Allen Funt's television show, Candid Camera, is similar to observational research in
social psychology. In what crucial respect is Candid Camera most different from observational
A)The people Funt filmed did not provide informed consent.
B)The kind of situations that Funt filmed are not relevant to social psychologists.
C)Funt intentionally manipulated the situations.
D)Funt's observations were not conducted in a controlled, scientific manner.
E)Funt did not use a random sample of people who confronted strange situations.
Answer: D
Type: MC Page Ref: 31-32
Skill: Conceptual
Ch.2-14 What makes the observations conducted by social scientists different from the kinds of observations that
anyone might make in the course of a day? Social scientists
A)will only sample people from their own culture.
B)make sure to observe a random sample of people.
C)observe and code behaviours according to prearranged criteria.
D) rely on technology (e.g., hidden cameras or tape recorders) to record behaviours.
E)make it a point never to interact with the people they are observing.
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 31-32
Skill: Conceptual
Ch.2-15 Which of the following is not an example of an operational definition?
A)Defining "liking" as the number of times two people smile at each other.
B)Defining "liking" as the number of times people get together in one week.
C)Defining "aggression" as the number of times a child yells at a peer.
D)Defining "love" as a unique and special feeling.
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