PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Safe Sex, Elaboration Likelihood Model, Theory Of Planned Behavior
ProfessorElizabeth Page- Gould
Attitudes and Attitude Change
- an evaluation of a person, object or idea
- They are evaluative based on the fact that they consist of a positive or negative
reaction to something.
- An attitude is made up of three components:
1) Affective component consisting of emotional reactions toward the attitude
object (ex. Another person or social issue)
2) cognitive component consisting of thoughts and beliefs about the attitude object,
3) Behavioural component consisting of actions or observable behaviour toward
the attitude object.
Affectively based attitude
- An attitude based primarily on people’s emotions and feelings rather than on an
objective appraisal of pluses and minuses about the attitude object.
- Ex falling in love with someone regardless of their past violent history, or liking
this one type of car brand despite its gas consumption and etc.
- People tend to have strong positive beliefs about an attitude object, is spite of
having negative beliefs.
- Affectively based attitudes have certain key features in common:
1) They do not result from a rational examination of the issues
2) They are not governed by logic
3) They are often linked to people’s values, so that trying to change them challenges
Cognitively based attitude
- An attitude based primarily on a person’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude
- The purpose of this kind of attitude is to classify the pluses and minuses of an
object so we can quickly tell whether it is worth our while to have anything to do
- Attitude is based on your beliefs about the objective merits of particular brands.
Behaviorally Based Attitude
- An attitude based primarily on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude
- Under certain circumstances people don’t know how they feel until they see how
- Ex Assuming you like to exercise of you always seem to be going for a run and
heading over to the gym frequently.
- Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report; they are what we think
of as our evaluations when someone asks us a question.
- Ex Sam considers that all people from different backgrounds are considered
- Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious.
- Ex When same is around Pakistani people, he starts to feel a bit of hatred and
nervousness because he grew up in society that generally shunned Pakistani people.
His feelings towards these people occur unintentionally.
Theory of Planned Behaviour
- A theory that the best predictors of a person’s planned, deliberate behaviours are
the person’s attitudes toward specific behaviours, subjective norms, and perceived
behavioral control. In others words, the best predictors people’s behaviour is their
intention (whether they intend to perform the behaviour in question)
- Only specific attitudes toward the behaviour in question can be expected to predict
- According to this theory, the best predictors of people’s behaviours are their
behavioral intentions. The best predictors of their intentions are their attitudes
toward the specific behaviour, their subjective norms, and their perceived control of
- People’s intentions are influenced by perceived behavioral control, which is the
ease with which people believe they can perform the behaviour. Ex if people
think it’s difficult to perform the behaviour, such as sticking to an exercise regimen;
they will not form a strong intention to do so.
- A major example of theory of planned behaviour is the implications for safer sex.
People have positive attitudes towards using condoms, expressions intentions to use
condoms, but then failing to actually use them during sexual encounters.
- Communication (ex. Speech or TV advertisement) advocating a particular side of
- The conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in
response to persuasive messages; that is, the source of the communication (the
person itself), the nature of the audience, and the nature of the communication itself
(how strong are the person’s arguments/speech?)
- Research has shown that speakers who are credible, trustworthy, attractive or
likeable are more likely to be more persuasive than those who are not.
Heuristic-Systematic model of Persuasion (Shelly Chaiken)
- The theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause
attitude change: people either process the merits of the arguments (aka systematic
processing) or are swayed by factors that are peripheral to the message itself, such
as “experts are always right” or based on attractiveness or credibility of a person
(known as heuristic processing).
Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty and Cacioppo)
- the theory that there are two ways in which persuasive communications can cause
1) The central route occurs when people are motivated and have the ability to pay
attention to the arguments in the communication.
2) The peripheral route occurs when people do not pay attention to the arguments, but
are instead swayed by surface characteristics (ex who gave the speech,
** Same terminology as systematic and heuristic processing but terminology given
by two different people.**
Fear arousing communication
- A persuasive message that attempts to change people’s attitudes by arousing their
- People often use this approach to scare people into practicing safer sex, wearing
seatbelts, and staying away from drugs.
-There could be cultural differences in advertising in people’s self-concept. Western
cultures tend to stress independence and individualism, whereas in collectivist (Asian)
cultures stress interdependence.
- words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but that supposedly influence
people’s judgements, attitudes, and behaviours.