PSYB10H3 Chapter Notes -Fritz Heider, Display Rules, Role Theory
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Perception (pg 96-122)
Culture and Nonverbal Communication
•Display rules: culturally determines rules about which non-verbal
behaviours are appropriate to display.
•In collectivist cultures, the expression of strong negative emotions is
discouraged because to do so can disrupt group harmony.
•Eye contact and eye gaze are particularly powerful nonverbal cues.
•Personal space can lead to misunderstandings when people of different
•Gestures of the hands and arms are also means of communication.
•Emblems: nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions
within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations, such as the
Gender and Nonverbal Communication
•Women are more accurate in interpreting nonverbal cues when a person
is telling the truth, men are better at detecting a lie.
•Social role theory: the theory that sex differences in social behaviour
derive from society's division of labour between the sexes; this division leads to
differences in gender role expectations and sex typed skills, both of which are
responsible for differences in men's and women's social behaviour
Implicit Personality Theories: Filling in the blanks
•Implicit personality theory: a type of schema people use to group
various kinds of personality traits together; for example many people believe that
if someone is kind, he or she is generous as well.
•However this can come at some cost, and in some cases could even be
fatal. (e.g about University students basing their decision on whether to use a
condom or not on their implicit personality theory.
Culture and Implicit Personality Theories
•Like other beliefs implicit personality theories are passed from
generation to generation in a society, therefore one cultures implicit personality
theory might be very different from another cultures.
•Collectivist individuals were less likely to assume that an attractive
person possessed desirable personality traits.
•Different cultures have different ideas about personality types. One's
culture, and one's language produce widely shared implicit personality theories,
and these theories can influence the kinds of inferences people make about each
Causal Attributions: Answering the "Why" Question
•Attribution theory: a description of the way in which people explain
the cause of their own and other people's behaviour.
The Nature of the Attributional Process