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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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CHAPTER 4
Social Perception: How We Come to Understand Other People
Nonverbal Behaviour
-nonverbal communication refers to how people communicate, intentionally or
unintentionally, without words
ofacial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, use of
touch, and eye gaze
-has been shown we automatically mimic other people’s facial expressions
oespecially pronounced when we like this person
oreflect empathy
-can help people express emotions, attitudes, and personality
Facial Expressions of Emotion
-belief that primary emotions conveyed by face are universal
oall human beings everywhere encode or express these emotions in same way, and
al human begins can decode or interpret them with equal accuracy
-applies to six major emotions: anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, and sadness
oability to interpret these six emotions are universal
Are Facial Expressions of Emotion Universal?
-one issue concerns level of accuracy that participants must achieve in order to conclude
that given facial expression is being perceived in same way across cultures
-claim of universality also suggests that basic facial expressions of emotion should be
easily identified regardless of context in which they are received
onot the case
Why is Decoding Sometimes Inaccurate?
-people frequently display affect blends, wherein one part of their face is registering one
emotion and another part is registering a different emotion
-at times, people try to appear less emotional than they are so that no one will know how
they really feel
Culture and Nonverbal Communication
-display rules are particular to each culture and dictate what kind of emotional expression
people are supposed to show
oin North American cultural norms, emotional displays in men are discouraged
-eye contact and eye gaze are particularly powerful nonverbal cues
www.notesolution.com
-differences in personal space can lead to misunderstandings when people of different
cultures interact
-emblems are nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given
culture
ookay sign, peace, give someone the finger
oare not universal, and each culture has devised its own emblems
-same nonverbal behaviour can exist in two cultures, but have very different meanings in
each
Gender and Nonverbal Communication
-many studies show that women are better at both decoding and encoding
-women are more accurate in interpreting nonverbal cues when a person is telling the truth
omen are better at detecting lies
-according to Alice Eagly’s social role theory, most societies have a division of labour
based on gender, whereby men work in jobs outside home and women work within home
otwo important consequences
ogender-role expectations arise: women are expected to be more nurturing and
friendly
omen and women develop different sets of skills and attitudes based on their
experiences in their gender roles
Implicit Personality Theories: Filling in the Blanks
-if you know that someone is kind, you use schema called implicit personality theory to
determine what other qualities the person has
omight also assume that this person is generous, and stingy person is irritable
-can form impressions quickly without having to spend weeks with people to figure out
what they are like
Culture and Implicit Personality Theories
-passed from generation to generation in a society
ostrong implicit personality theory in our culture involves physical attractiveness
-the language people speak influences the way they think about the world
Causal Attribution: Answering the “Why” Question
-even though nonverbal communication is sometimes easy to decode, there is still
ambiguity as to what a person’s behaviour really means
-the attribution theory is the way in which people explain the causes of their own and
other people’s behaviour
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CHAPTER 4 Social Perception: How We Come to Understand Other People Nonverbal Behaviour - nonverbal communication refers to how people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words o facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, use of touch, and eye gaze - has been shown we automatically mimic other peoples facial expressions o especially pronounced when we like this person o reflect empathy - can help people express emotions, attitudes, and personality Facial Expressions of Emotion - belief that primary emotions conveyed by face are universal o all human beings everywhere encode or express these emotions in same way, and al human begins can decode or interpret them with equal accuracy - applies to six major emotions: anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, and sadness o ability to interpret these six emotions are universal Are Facial Expressions of Emotion Universal? - one issue concerns level of accuracy that participants must achieve in order to conclude that given facial expression is being perceived in same way across cultures - claim of universality also suggests that basic facial expressions of emotion should be easily identified regardless of context in which they are received o not the case Why is Decoding Sometimes Inaccurate? - people frequently display affect blends, wherein one part of their face is registering one emotion and another part is registering a different emotion - at times, people try to appear less emotional than they are so that no one will know how they really feel Culture and Nonverbal Communication - display rules are particular to each culture and dictate what kind of emotional expression people are supposed to show o in North American cultural norms, emotional displays in men are discouraged - eye contact and eye gaze are particularly powerful nonverbal cues www.notesolution.com
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