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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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CHAPTER 5
Self-Knowledge and the Need to Maintain Self-Esteem
The Nature of the Self
-self-concept, which is contests of the self, or our knowledge about who we are
-self-awareness is the act of thinking about ourselves
-two aspects of self combine to create coherent sense of identity
-chimps, orangutans, and possibly dolphins have rudimentary self-concept
orouge test
-in humans, self-recognition starts at around two years of age
-as we mature, we place less emphasis on physical characteristics and more emphasis on
our psychological states, traits/characteristics
-people who are low in self-concept clarity are more likely to be neurotic and have low
self-esteem and are less likely to be aware of their internal states
Functions of the Self
Organizational Function of the Self
-we have self-schemas, mental structures that helps us to organize our knowledge about
ourselves
-a self-reference effect is the tendency for people to remember information better if they
relate it to themselves
-integrating information with our self-schemas helps us organize it better and connect it to
other information about ourselves
omakes us more likely to remember it later
-desire to see ourselves in positive light can influence which of our past actions we are
most likely to remember
owhen people are motivated to see themselves as possessing a desired quality or
trait, they conduct selective memory search for examples of past behaviours
consistent with that trait
Self-Regulation: The Executive Function
-regulars people’s behaviour, choices, and plans for future
-only species that can engage in long-term planning
-self-regulatory resource model states that self-control is a limited resource, like a muscle
that gets too tired with frequent use but then rebounds in strength
ospending it on one task limits amount that can be spent on another task
-people are best at self-control when they are well rested and not too stressed out
www.notesolution.com
Cultural Differences in Defining Self
-in many Western cultures, people have an independent view of self, which is defining
oneself in terms of one’s own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions
onot in terms of others
-many Asian and other collectivist cultures have interdependent view of the self, which
is defining oneself in terms of one’s relationships to other people and recognizing that
one’s behaviour is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others
Gender Differences in Defining the Self
-women’s self-concepts reflect more relational interdependence, meaning that they focus
more on their close relationships
ohow they feel about their romantic partner, friend, or child
-men tend to define themselves in terms of social groups, known as collective
interdependence
Knowing Ourselves through Introspection
-introspection is looking inward and examining your own thoughts, feelings, and motives
-even when people introspect, reasons for their feelings and behaviours can be hidden
from conscious awareness
Focusing on Self: Self-Awareness Theory
-when we are feeling self-aware, we tend to assume that we also are more transparent to
others
owhen we are focused on our self, we have tendency to erroneously assume that
others also share this awareness
-according to self-awareness theory, when we focus our attention on ourselves, we
evaluate and compare our current behaviour against our internal standards and values
owe become self-conscious in sense that we become objective, judgmental
observers of ourselves
-self-focus can also be way of keeping you out of trouble, by reminding you of your sense
of right and wrong
Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do: Telling More than We Can Know
-casual theories are about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviours
owe learn such theories from our culture
www.notesolution.com

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Description
CHAPTER 5 Self-Knowledge and the Need to Maintain Self-Esteem The Nature of the Self - self-concept, which is contests of the self, or our knowledge about who we are - self-awareness is the act of thinking about ourselves - two aspects of self combine to create coherent sense of identity - chimps, orangutans, and possibly dolphins have rudimentary self-concept o rouge test - in humans, self-recognition starts at around two years of age - as we mature, we place less emphasis on physical characteristics and more emphasis on our psychological states, traitscharacteristics - people who are low in self-concept clarity are more likely to be neurotic and have low self-esteem and are less likely to be aware of their internal states Functions of the Self Organizational Function of the Self - we have self-schemas, mental structures that helps us to organize our knowledge about ourselves - a self-reference effect is the tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves - integrating information with our self-schemas helps us organize it better and connect it to other information about ourselves o makes us more likely to remember it later - desire to see ourselves in positive light can influence which of our past actions we are most likely to remember o when people are motivated to see themselves as possessing a desired quality or trait, they conduct selective memory search for examples of past behaviours consistent with that trait Self-Regulation: The Executive Function - regulars peoples behaviour, choices, and plans for future - only species that can engage in long-term planning - self-regulatory resource model states that self-control is a limited resource, like a muscle that gets too tired with frequent use but then rebounds in strength o spending it on one task limits amount that can be spent on another task - people are best at self-control when they are well rested and not too stressed out www.notesolution.com
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