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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Chapter 8
Group Processes: Influence in Social Groups
What Is a Group?
-a group is defined as a collection of two or more people who interact with each other and
are interdependent in sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on one another
-groups are people who have assembled together for a common purpose
Why Do People Join Groups?
-forming relationships with other people fulfills number of basic human needs
oevidence that people who bonded together were better able to hunt and grow food,
find mates, and care for children
-groups to which we belong play important role in defining who we expect to be in future,
as well as playing important role in motivating people to become involved in social
change
The Composition and Function of Groups
-most social groups range in size from two to six members
-if groups become too large, you cannot interact with all members
-members tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs, and opinions
Social Norms
-norms may not be shared by members of other groups to which you belong
-powerful determinants of human behaviour, as shown by what happens if people violate
them too often
oshunned by other group members or pressured to leave group
Social Roles
-social roles are shared expectations about how particular people are supposed to behave
-when members of group follow set of clearly defined roles, they tend to be satisfied and
perform well
-people can get so into role that their personal identity and personality are lost
-the Stanford Prison experiment
-people were assigned guard or prisoner roles, and basement of university building was
converted into temporary prison
-many guards became quite abusive, thinking of creative ways to verbally harass and
humiliate prisoners
-prisoners became passive, helpless, and withdrawn
www.notesolution.com
osome even became so anxious and depressed they were released from experiment
early
-another drawback of social roles is that there is cost to acting inconsistently with
expectations associated with roles
omen should not wear handbags
Gender Roles
-in many cultures, women are expected to assume role of wife and mother, with only
limited opportunities to pursue other careers
Group Cohesiveness
-group cohesiveness is defined as qualities of group that bind members together and
promote liking among them
-the more cohesive a group, the more its members are likely to stay in group, take part in
group activities, and try to recruit like-minded members
-one drawback is that group members concern with maintaining good relations can get in
the way of finding good solutions to problems
How Groups Influence the Behaviour of Individuals
Social Facilitation: When the Presence of Others Energizes Us
-presence of other people can mean one of two things
operforming task with others who are doing same thing you are
operforming task in front of audience that is not doing anything except observing
you
-as long as task is relatively simply and well learned, mere presence of others improves
performance
Simple versus Difficult Tasks
-people as well as animals do worse in presence of others when task is difficult
Arousal and Dominant Response
-presence of others increases physiological arousal, making our bodies more energized
-when such arousal exists, it is easier to do something that is simple (dominant response)
but harder to do something complex or learn something new
-this phenomenon is known as social facilitation
Why the Presence of Others Causes Arousal
-three theories to explain role of arousal
oother people cause us to become particularly alert and vigilant
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8 Group Processes: Influence in Social Groups What Is a Group? - a group is defined as a collection of two or more people who interact with each other and are interdependent in sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on one another - groups are people who have assembled together for a common purpose Why Do People Join Groups? - forming relationships with other people fulfills number of basic human needs o evidence that people who bonded together were better able to hunt and grow food, find mates, and care for children - groups to which we belong play important role in defining who we expect to be in future, as well as playing important role in motivating people to become involved in social change The Composition and Function of Groups - most social groups range in size from two to six members - if groups become too large, you cannot interact with all members - members tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs, and opinions Social Norms - norms may not be shared by members of other groups to which you belong - powerful determinants of human behaviour, as shown by what happens if people violate them too often o shunned by other group members or pressured to leave group Social Roles - social roles are shared expectations about how particular people are supposed to behave - when members of group follow set of clearly defined roles, they tend to be satisfied and perform well - people can get so into role that their personal identity and personality are lost - the Stanford Prison experiment - people were assigned guard or prisoner roles, and basement of university building was converted into temporary prison - many guards became quite abusive, thinking of creative ways to verbally harass and humiliate prisoners - prisoners became passive, helpless, and withdrawn www.notesolution.com
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