Chapter 8: cognition: mental activity through which human beings acquire, remember, and learn to use knowledge, perception, attention, learning, memory, and reasoning. The stages of cognitive development the way a child thinks: stages of development: comprehensive, qualitative changes over time in, stages are built through experience, so children don"t reach these stages at exactly the same age. Week 5 notes: see table on pg. In developing an understanding of conservation, children conserve different objects or substances at different ages. If a task is simplified or made more comprehensible, children can conserve at earlier ages than piaget suspected: how does the socio-emotional and cultural context of cognitive. Inner speech: internal monologue that guides intelligent functioning: using the zone of proximal development in teaching language, the keep teacher uses modeling, questioning, and feedback, which are part of the methods of scaffolding and reciprocal instruction.