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PSYB30H3 (492)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Key Terms

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier

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Chapter 3 – Social Learning and Culture
Positive Reinforcement: rewarding socially desirable behaviour to increase likelihood of
behaviour occurring in the future
Behaviourism: is a brand of psychology that explores the ways in which observable
behaviour is learned and shaped by the environment. B.F. Skinner was arguably
behaviourisms most ardent enthusiast. John Watson launched behaviourist movement.
Utilitarianism: put forth the idea that the good society should make for the greatest
happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people. More egalitarian, equality for
all
Associationism: purports that various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or
space come to be connected or associated, with each other into meaningful units. Simple
forms of learning proceed via associations.
Classical Conditioning: Represents one such form of simple learning – Pavlov.
Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response
Conditioned stimulus conditioned response
Stimulus generalization: the expansion of a conditioned response so that it is evoked in
response to a wide variety of stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus in some way
Higher-order conditioning: conditioned stimuli, which have obtained their eliciting
power through associations with unconditioned stimuli, come to be associated with other
neutral stimuli, which themselves become conditioned stimuli by virtue of the
association.
Instrumental/operant conditioning: another form of learning, behaviour is modified by
its consequences. Positive consequences for a behaviour increase the likelihood of its
recurrence, thus reinforcing the association between the behaviour and the various stimuli
in the environment present at the time the behaviour occurred. Negative consequences
decrease likelihood of behaviour recurring, thus weakening stimulus-response
connections. (Skinner)
Concepts of Operant Conditioning
Concept Definition
Positive reinforcerAny stimulus that, because of its
presentation after a response, strengthens
(increases probability of) the response. In
effect, the organism is rewarded for the
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response
Negative reinforcerAny stimulus that, because of its removal
after a response, strengthens or increases
the probability of the response. In effect,
organism experiences relief (a kind of
reward) after the response
Positive punishment Any stimulus that, because of its
presentation after a response, weakens the
response. Positive punishments are aversive
or painful stimuli that reduce the behaviour
they follow
Negative punishmentAny stimulus that, because of its removal
after a response, weakens the response.
Negative punishments remove pleasurable
stimuli
Extinction A previously reinforced behaviour is no
longer reinforced; eventually the behaviour
decreases and drops to baseline levels
Shaping Getting organism to emit a complex
response by reinforcing successive
approximations to the behaviours that make
up the complex response. A complex, final
response may be shaped by rewarding the
organism for the simple component
responses that make it up
Continuous reinforcementDelivering reinforcement after every
instance of a particular response. Behaviour
submitted to a continuious reinforcement
schedule is learned rapidly
Partial reinforcementNot reinforcing every instance of the
behaviour, but rather delivering
reinforcement intermittently according to a
particular schedule. Interval reinforcement
schedules administer reinforcement after a
particular period of time. Ratio
reinforcement schedules administer
reinforcement after a particular number of
responses. Behaviour submitted to partial
reinforcement schedules, either interval or
ratio are more resistant to extinction.
Conditioned generalized reinforcers: reinforcers that acquire their power because of
their association with a variety of other reinforcers – best example: money
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Description
Chapter 3 Social Learning and Culture Positive Reinforcement: rewarding socially desirable behaviour to increase likelihood of behaviour occurring in the future Behaviourism: is a brand of psychology that explores the ways in which observable behaviour is learned and shaped by the environment. B.F. Skinner was arguably behaviourisms most ardent enthusiast. John Watson launched behaviourist movement. Utilitarianism: put forth the idea that the good society should make for the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people. More egalitarian, equality for all Associationism: purports that various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be connected or associated, with each other into meaningful units. Simple forms of learning proceed via associations. Classical Conditioning: Represents one such form of simple learning Pavlov. Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus conditioned response Stimulus generalization: the expansion of a conditioned response so that it is evoked in response to a wide variety of stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus in some way Higher-order conditioning: conditioned stimuli, which have obtained their eliciting power through associations with unconditioned stimuli, come to be associated with other neutral stimuli, which themselves become conditioned stimuli by virtue of the association. Instrumentaloperant conditioning: another form of learning, behaviour is modified by its consequences. Positive consequences for a behaviour increase the likelihood of its recurrence, thus reinforcing the association between the behaviour and the various stimuli in the environment present at the time the behaviour occurred. Negative consequences decrease likelihood of behaviour recurring, thus weakening stimulus-response connections. (Skinner) Concepts of Operant Conditioning Concept Definition Positive reinforcer Any stimulus that, because of its presentation after a response, strengthens (increases probability of) the response. In effect, the organism is rewarded for the www.notesolution.com
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